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(p. 537) Index 

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Subscriber: null; date: 15 October 2018

Page numbers followed by f, t, and b refer to figures, tables, and boxes respectively.

ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 289
Abdominal pain symptoms, 147
ABIs (acquired brain injuries), children with, 522
Aboriginal communities, 308, 313318, 490
Abuse
child, 18, 65
emotional, 423
physical, 136, 137, 423
and serious mental health issues, 136, 137, 139
sexual, 136, 423
verbal, 137
Academic performance, 423
anxiety and, 108
impact of child’s, 228
influence of parenting on, 11
ACAD (Australian Child to Adult Development) study, 443
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), 522
Access
equality of, 528
to evidence-based parenting support, 486
to population approaches, 479
to services for families of children with developmental disabilities, 447
to successful population approaches, 44
Accreditation
for practitioners, 376377, 378, 380, 489
for Triple P trainers, 374375
Acquired brain injuries (ABIs), children with, 522
ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy), 522
Active participation, in positive parenting, 73
Active skills training
and active participation, 73
and self-management, 72
Activity levels, and childhood obesity, 158
Adherence, practitioner, 406, 410
ADIS-IV-C/P (Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children), 113
Adolescent-limited (AL) path, 86
Adolescents
anxiety disorders of, 82
with chronic health conditions, 145150
with developmental disabilities, 443
influence of parenting on, 23
and natural disasters, 273
obesity among, 157
positive parenting techniques for use with, 66, 67
problem behaviors of, 83
with psychosocial difficulties, 171179
safe and engaging environment for, 64
with serious mental health problems, 135142
Triple P for parents of, 490
Adoption
and implementation of EBPS programs, 361
of population health interventions, 478
Adult children
influence of parent–child relationship, 23
parenting programs to improve relationships with, 529 (p. 538)
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), 54
Adversity, parental, 295
Affect, and self-regulation, 41
Africa
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
cultural acceptability studies in, 46
cultural adaptations for Triple P in, 335, 335b
culture of countries in, 333
research on parenting interventions in, 527
African American parents, 490
Agency. See Personal agency
Agenda, PASS session, 410
“Ages-and-stages” approach to child development, 65
Aggressive behavior
and chronic health conditions, 146
interactional processes leading to, 15
Agoraphobia, 107
Alcohol use
in adolescence, 171
and divorce of parents, 217
Aldridge, W. A., 362, 480
Aligned organizations, 388
Alliances
improving delivery with, 437b
for population-level interventions, 434435
for Triple P implementation, 49
American Academy of Pediatrics, 19, 54, 164
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 385, 387f, 391
Andreasen, A., 384, 392
Anger
in divorced parents, 217218
of grandparents toward parents, 199
Antenatal parental tasks and responsibilities, 24t
Antisocial behavior
and divorce of parents, 217
as serious mental health issue, 136
Anxiety
and bullying, 97
and child anxiety, 10
and chronic health conditions, 146
family outcomes related to, 396
fear vs., 107
parent and child, 10
as serious mental health issue, 136, 139
symptoms of, in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities, 443
transmission of, within families, 108109
Anxiety disorders, 107
and Fear-less Triple P, 10
prevalence of, 82
as serious mental health issue, 135
Triple P variants for families with, 490
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS-IV-C/P), 113
“Anxiety-maintaining” parenting, 110
Anxiety problems, children with, 107116
case example, 115b
and experience of anxiety/fear, 107
future research directions, 114116
parenting and family factors in outcomes for, 108110
parenting support in families of, 110112
significance of anxiety problems for children, 108
Triple P for families of, 112114, 114t
Anxious parenting style, 274
Aos, S., 465
Applied behavior analysis, 33, 486
Applied Survey Research, 426b
Approaching Bad Weather (video), 280
Apps, 286
Arrest (parental), 22
Asia
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
culture of countries in, 333
research on parenting interventions in, 527
Triple P for parents from, 490
Assertive discipline, using, 6465
Asthma, 145, 147, 148
Asthma Behavior Checklist, 399
“At-home” parenting, 253
Atlantic Philanthropies, 436
Attachment, 246
Attachment behaviors, 75
Attachment theory, 522
Attar-Schwartz, S., 199
Attention
and child externalizing behavior problems, 9
contingent positive, 64
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
and father involvement, 189, 193
in parents, 209210
as serious mental health issue, 136, 139
Triple P Online for families with, 299
Attitudes
about parenting programs, 390392
toward parents, 505506
Attributional style, 17 (p. 539)
Australasia
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
cultural acceptability studies in, 46
Australia
accessing parenting advice in, 230
anxiety disorders in, 108
Baby Triple P program in, 209
broadcast-media approaches in, 289, 291
child care by grandparents in, 19, 197
childhood obesity in, 158
children with chronic health conditions in, 145
children with disabilities in, 130
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313, 314
development of Triple P in, 340
divorce in, 216, 222
early childhood programs in, 246247
employment of parents in, 262
Lifestyle Triple P trials in, 162, 164
Primary Care Triple P in, 235
service users with mental illness in, 207
support for EBPS programs in, 473
Triple P for parents from, 490
Triple P with Indigenous families in, 373
Workplace Triple P in, 267
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), 289
Australian Child to Adult Development (ACAD) study, 443
Australian National Disabilities Insurance Scheme, 500
Authoritative parenting, 158, 189
Authority, in MAPP Triple P trial, 436
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
adolescents with, 177
behavioral phenotype for, 448t
as developmental disability, 442
prevalence of, 442, 446
Automated Client Scoring and Reporting Application (ASRA), 49, 400, 513t
Autonomy, and religious beliefs, 346
Availability, emotional, 423
Avoidant behaviors, 110
Azar, S. T., 16


Baby Triple P, 51, 209
Baidu, 389
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., 509
Balancing Work, Life, and Family (seminar), 267
Bandura, A., 40, 7071
Barrett, P. M., 108
Bartlett, J. A., 162
Barton, K., 174
Base rate, measurement issues related to, 425
Bauer, S. C., 232
Bee, P., 207
Behavior(s)
parent report measures of, 399
teaching, 68t69t
Behavioral family interventions (BFIs), 4, 32, 138139, 458
Behaviorally-oriented parenting programs, 495
Behavioral parent training, 32, 33
Behavioral patterns, and parenting, 15
Behavioral phenotypes, 448t449t
Behavioral problems
and child maltreatment, 419
children with developmental disabilities, 82, 420, 444, 450
and chronic health conditions, 146, 148
and developmental disability, 122
effect of Stepping Stones Triple P on, 450
externalizing, 8593
father involvement and reduction of, 189, 190
lifelong problems associated with, 434
and parental adversity, 295
and parental stress, 22
prevalence in Ireland of, 433434
and serious mental health issues, 139
and targeted interventions, 479
teenager with, 176b
Triple P system to decrease, 34
See also Misbehavior
Behavioral self-regulation, 9
Behavior-based strain, 264
Behavior charts, 245
Being a Positive Parent (discussion group), 317
Belgium, 139, 313
Beliefs
about teaching parenting, 390
and motivations, 383384
Belsky, J., 8, 57
Better Outcomes Brighter Futures National Policy Framework for Children and Young People, 2014-2020, 433
Bias, in independently-led research, 467
Bijleveld, C. C. J. H., 22
Biological influences, on parenting, 13
Bipolar disorder, 18, 209210
Blader, J. C., 136
Blaming, 17, 391
Blood glucose metabolism, 157
Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development, 55
Body mass index (BMI), 157, 162, 163
Booster sessions, 46
Bootstrapping, 55 (p. 540)
Bor, W., 172
Borderline behavioral difficulties, 433434
Borghi, C., 207
Boundary ambiguity, with grandparents, 199
Boyd, R., 333
Boyle, C. L., 234
Brain development, 8
Brand awareness, for Triple P system, 518
Branded parenting programs, generic vs., 516517
Breaux, R. P., 189
Brechman-Toussaint, M., 287
Brisbane, Australia, 162
Broadcast-media approaches to positive parenting, 284292
and changing nature of media, 289
efficacy of, 286289
examples of, 286
future of, 290291
as large-scale strategy, 290291
media expert involvement in, 289290
rationale for providing, 284286
risk/cautions with, 290
special challenges in, 289290
Brody, G. H., 509
Bronfenbrenner, U., 196, 253
Brooks-Gunn, J., 19
“Buffering” effect, 199
Building Bridges Triple P, 177
Building Children’s Social and Emotional Skills (online module), 246
Bullying, 97102, 102b
in adolescence, 171
and childhood obesity, 157
Resilience Triple P as intervention for, 11
Bureau Blanco, 385
Burke, K., 174, 507
Burson, R., 522


Calam, R., 176, 288
Calkins, S. D., 100
Callous-unemotional traits, 100
Canada
accessing parenting advice in, 230
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
divorce in, 216
early childhood education in, 244
government support for EBPS programs in, 473
parenting program coordination in, 477
Triple P for parents in, 490
Triple P with Indigenous families in, 373
Canavan, J., 50, 257, 475
Capacity (parental)
benefits of increasing, 472
factors influencing, 2223
Capaldi, D.M., 137
CAPES (Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale), 399
CAPES-DD (Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale–Developmental Disability), 399
Cardiovascular disease, 157
Caregivers
and children with developmental disabilities, 122
grandparents as, 197198
shared vs. nonshared responsibilities of, 185
Caregiver sensitivity, 333334
Caregivers Journey of Hope (JoH) workshop, 277
Caribbean, cultural acceptability studies in, 46
Caring activities, in parenting, 6
Carmont, S., 288
Cartwright-Hatton, S., 112
Catalysts, to stakeholder action, 388
Catch-up sessions, with Indigenous families, 325
CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist), 112, 399
CD (conduct disorder), 85
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 157
Central America
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
cultural acceptability studies in, 46
Cerebral palsy, 446
CFIR (Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research), 360, 427
Chand, N. L., 174
Change mechanisms, research on, 495, 498
Changing Problem Behavior Into Positive Behavior (seminar), 125
Chen, E., 509
Child abuse
by parents with mental illness, 18
and unrealistic expectations of parents, 65
Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale (CAPES), 399
Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale–Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), 399
Child and Family Agency, 436
Child anxiety, effects of parenting on, 10
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 112, 399
Child care, access to, 255
Child care settings, delivery of Triple P in, 228 (p. 541)
Child development
“ages-and-stages” approach to, 65
environmental influences on, 472473
impact of parent–child interactions on, 423
parental mental health problems and, 207
and parent–child relationship, 4
parenting and, 3, 5, 712
peer relationships in, 82
in positive parenting, 63
and poverty, 20
role of fathers in, 188189
Child-focused CBT, 110111
Child-focused psychotherapy, 82
Child Growth Standards (WHO), 157
Childhood obesity, parenting support for prevention/treatment of, 156166
with Lifestyle Triple P, 160163, 161t
policy issues, 164165
population approach to, 157160
service delivery issues, 164
Childhood obesity, prevalence of, 82
Child-initiated interactions, in positive learning environments, 64
Child maltreatment and neglect
behavioral parenting training to prevent, 33
and brain development, 8
and child development, 7
defined, 423
government databases on, 398399
government policies on prevention of, 474
and parenting risk, 422423
population-based prevention of, 422429
population-level outcomes of Triple P for prevention of, 50
prevalence and significance of, 419
prevalence of, 295
Triple P for parents at risk of, 490
Triple P for reducing, 42, 43f, 54
Children
with anxiety problems, 107116
benefits of religious beliefs for, 346
characteristics of, as parenting determinant, 1516
consequences of child maltreatment for, 422
with developmental disabilities, 121131, 442452
of divorced parents, 216217
effects of parent–child relationship for, 3
with externalizing behavior problems, 8593
impact of parenting on, 422423
influences of parenting on, 526
and natural disasters, 272273
with peer relationship problems, 97102
perspective of, in parenting research, 523524
positive parenting techniques for specific populations, 6670, 67t69t
as resource, 528
with serious mental health problems, 135142
Triple P applications with diverse, 490
Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), 113
Chile
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
efficacy of Triple P in, 339
Triple P for parents in, 490
China (mainland)
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
efficacy of Triple P in, 339
Group Triple P program in, 254
Chorpita, B. F., 516
Christchurch, New Zealand, 277
Chronic health conditions, children and adolescents with, 145150
and effects of parenting intervention, 149b, 149f
future research directions, 150
influence of parenting on medical compliance for, 12
nature of chronic childhood health conditions, 145146
parenting and family factors in outcomes for, 146147
parenting interventions in families of, 147
practice with, 149150
Triple P for families of, 147149
Triple P variants for families with, 490
Chu, J. T. W., 174
Chung, E. K., 137
Clark, M. D., 232
Clarke, L., 199
Classroom management, 248
Cleghorn, G. J., 160, 162
Clinical Global Impression—Severity (CGI-S), 113
Clinical practice, parenting services/programs in, 56
Clinical treatment approach, population-based approach vs., 35
Clinic management support, 237
Club sandwich generation, 529
Clusters, in outcome research, 426
Coaching
for parents, 32
in PECE, 246
Coall, D. A., 199 (p. 542)
Cobham, V. E., 10, 112, 113, 274
Coercion, 396, 450
Coercion theory, 15, 486
Coercive parenting
and bullying, 100
and children with developmental disabilities, 122
and externalizing behavior problems, 87
father involvement and reduction of, 190
and serious mental health issues, 137
Cognition, effect of parenting on, 8
Cognitive-based parenting programs, 101
Cognitive-behavioral theory, 395
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 511, 521
to help with inclusion of grandparents, 200
and serious mental health issues, 139
treatment of depression, 207
with Triple P Online, 18
Cognitive factors, in parenting, 1617
Cognitive neuroscience, 472473
Cognitive theory, 70
Collaborations, multidisciplinary, 524525
Collaborative cultural adaptation (term), 311
Collaborative engagement, with Indigenous families, 323324
Collaborative partnership adaptation model (CPAM), 21, 308, 310319, 513t
for culturally informed delivery, 47
definition of collaborative cultural adaptation, 311
delivery of parenting support with, 312316
example of, 312
future research directions, 318
logisitics, 317318
randomized controlled trials supporting, 316317
Collective efficacy, 2526
Collectivistic cultures, 333
cultural adaptations of Triple P for, 336t
delivery of parenting support in, 334
efficacy of Triple P in, 338339
implementation issues in, 337
Commercialization partners, for dissemination, 465
Commitment and Contracting phase (Triple P Implementation Framework), 364
Common elements approach, 516
Communication
broadcast-media approaches to positive parenting, 284292
and chronic health conditions, 146
disturbances in, for children and adolescents with developmental disabilities, 443
between home and school, 253
Communication skills, effect of parenting on, 8
Communications strategy, for successful population approach, 358
Community(-ies)
family-friendly, 493494
influence of, on parenting, 528
Community-based services, exclusion from, 122
Community child health nurses, 228
Community factors, in parenting, 20
Community health workers, 232
Community involvement, of children with disabilities, 126, 127
Community-level outcomes, of child maltreatment prevention program, 424425
Community-level parenting support, 2526
Community organizations, partnerships with, 488
Community-wide parenting and family support, for child maltreatment prevention, 424425
Compassion theory, 522
Competence, practitioner, 406
Compliance with medical treatments, 12
Conduct disorder (CD), 85
Conduct disorders, children with, 139
family interventions for, 32
identification/expression of emotions by, 522
self-efficacy of parents with, 16
Conduct problems, children with, 474
Conflict
between divorced parents, 218
and father involvement, 191
between parents and grandparents, 199200
work-related, 263265
Conflicts-of-interest (COIs)
and evidence base for EBPS programs, 504
in program development, 467468, 468t
Conformity, and religious beliefs, 346
Connections Teen Triple P, 177
Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), 360, 427
CONSORT, 463
Constructive approach, positive parenting as, 66
Consumer engagement, 25, 46
Consumer feedback, 46
Consumer preference surveys, 462
Consumers, informed, of parenting programs, 512, 515
Content and process fidelity measure (FPT), 513t
Content strategies, 389390
Contingency management strategies, 9 (p. 543)
Contingent consequences, in behavioral family interventions, 32
Contingent positive attention, 64
Contingent responsiveness, 333
Continuous quality assurance (QA) process, 460
Control, in positive parenting programs, 7475
Controlling behaviors, 396
Cooperation
for implementation of population-level approach, 420
in positive parenting programs, 74
Cooperative breeders, humans as, 197
Coordination
of parenting programs, 477
within Triple P program, 49
Co-parenting
and divorce, 216, 219
and father involvement, 189, 190
Coping strategies, for parents, 65, 175
Core parenting skills, 66, 68t69t
Core team, in MAPP Triple P trial, 436, 437
Corporal punishment, 22, 123, 338
Cosh, I., 476
Cost-effectiveness
in program development, 465
for Triple P system, 361
of workplace programs, 268
Costs
associated with population approach to EBPS, 478b, 479480
of care for children with developmental disabilities, 443444
of Lifestyle Triple P program, 165
Council of Europe, 473
Craig, A., 390
Crandall, A., 207
Crane, M. E., 12
Criminal behavior, 8586
Critical analytic approach to program development, 469
Criticism, 146
Croft, C., 212b
Cross-cultural family psychology, 333
Cultural acceptability studies (Triple P), 21, 46, 373
Cultural accommodation approach, 326327
Cultural adaptations for parenting interventions, 332341
and collaborative partnership adaptation model, 310317
for culturally-informed delivery, 47
and dimensions of cultural difference, 332334
efficacy of, 338339
facilitator’s assumptions about, 373
future research directions, 339340
implementation issues with, 337338
online interventions, 296, 297
support delivery in different countries, 334
Triple P delivery in different countries, 334337, 335b, 336t337t
Cultural difference, dimensions of, 332334
Cultural dimensions theory, 333
Cultural diversity, 307309
Triple P innovations related to, 490491
See also specific groups
Cultural factors, in parenting practices, 2021
Cultural gatekeepers, 347
Cultural groups, effectiveness of Triple P across, 46
Culturally-informed delivery, 47
Cultural norms, on parenting, 391, 392
Culture
defined, 308, 333
of innovation, 498500
and religion, 308
Culture and Heritage/Status of Women, 477
Custodial caregivers, grandparents as, 197198
Cyberbullying, 97


DAAs (disaster-affected areas), 277, 278
Dadds, M. R., 88
DASS (Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale), 278, 317
Data collection, on population-level outcomes, 398
Davies, P. S. W., 160, 162
Day, J. J., 48, 253, 299
DBC (Developmental Behaviour Checklist), 443
DBC-P (Developmental Behaviour Checklist–Parent/Carer version), 446
Dealing With Disobedience (discussion group), 317
Deater-Deckard, K., 207
De Haan, M., 8
Deković, M., 13
Delivery
alliance to improve, 437b
culturally-informed, 47
development of modalities for, 489
diversity of contexts for, 489
of EBIs for families of children with developmental disabilities, 444
(p. 544) Delivery (cont.)
models of, for families with children with developmental disabilities, 447
of parenting support, 372373
qualifying practitioners for, 499
settings for, 54, 373
strategies for parenting support, 407409
targets for, 5051, 58
threats to, for EBPs, 406
of Triple P system, 35, 37t38t, 4546
by volunteers, 520521
Delivery systems
in different countries, 334337, 335b, 336t337t
for positive parenting programs, 227230
technology-assisted, 294302
See also specific topics
Delusions, 210
Department of Children and Youth Affairs, 436
Department of Health, 407
Depression
adolescent, 171
and anxiety, 108
and bullying, 97
and externalizing behavior disorders, 85
family outcomes related to parental, 396
in fathers, 189
postnatal, 207
as serious mental health issue, 136
Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), 278, 317
Deprofessionalization, of practitioner workforce, 516
Descriptive (labeled) praise, 491, 506
Desha, L. N., 162
Desirable behavior, encouraging, 68t
Destigmatization, in Stay Positive campaign, 385, 388389
Developer-led research, 466
Developing a Positive Approach to Learning (online module), 246
Developing countries, children with developmental disabilities in, 123
Development, ecological model of, 253
Development, program, 51, 457458, 460470
Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), 443
Developmental Behaviour Checklist–Parent/Carer version (DBC-P), 446
Developmental disabilities (DDs)
defined, 442
prevalence of, 442
and religious beliefs, 347
significance of, for children, 442443
as term, 121
Developmental disabilities, adolescents with, 177
Developmental disabilities, children with, 121131, 442452
behavior problems for, 420
case example, 127b
costs of care for, 443444
future research directions, 130
and influence of family issues on child behavior, 121122
lessons from real-world example with, 451452
parenting and family factors in outcomes for, 122124
parenting programs for families with, 444
policy issues for, 129130
population approach to EBIs for families with, 444445
positive parenting techniques for use with, 70
practice with, 129
significance of disability for, 442443
Stepping Stones Triple P for families of, 124128, 126f, 128t, 445451
Developmental Disability Act, 121
Dia, D. A., 108
Diabetes, 147, 148, 157
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 107
Diet
and childhood obesity, 158
and Indigenous families, 322
Differential susceptibility hypothesis, 57, 509510
Digital divide, 296
Direct observation, 397, 399
Direct-to-consumer delivery, 301
Disabilities, children with
parenting programs for families with, 495
Triple P variants for families with, 490
Disability Discrimination Act, 442
Disadvantaged families, Lifestyle Triple P program with, 165
Disaster-affected areas (DAAs), 277, 278
Disaster Recovery Triple P (DRTP), 275281
Discipline
adaptations of Triple P for alternate, 337t
assertive, 6465
and child externalizing behavior problems, 89
of children with developmental disabilities, 123
and chronic health conditions, 146
cultural influences on, 334
in parenting, 7
and serious mental health issues, 136
Discussion groups, 36, 46, 255, 256t (p. 545)
Disobedience Discussion Group, 236
Disruptive behavior
behavioral family interventions in treatment of, 32
for children and adolescents with developmental disabilities, 443
interactional processes leading to, 15
and relationship between parents, 18
as serious mental health issue, 136
technology-assisted delivery of parenting programs to address, 295
by teenagers, 175
Triple P Online Brief for families with children having, 300
Triple P Online for families with children having, 298, 299
Triple P program as intervention for, 45
Triple P system for children with, 81
Disruptive behavior disorders, 85
Dissemination
of evidence-based parenting support, 517518
implementation framework for, 465466
of parenting support, 372373
of research on Triple P system, 525
scaling up of interventions for, 464465
tools for, 513t514t
of Triple P system, 488
Distress
and anxiety, 107
and divorce, 217
mental health and parental, 206207
in mothers, 444
Dittman, C., 174, 193, 522
Divorce (term), 216
Divorced parents, 216222
and children with developmental disabilities, 123124
parenting/family factors in outcomes for children of, 217218
parenting interventions with, 218219
policy on interventions with, 221
practice with, 220222
stress on children with, 216217
Triple P with, 219220, 221b, 490
Documentary-style coaching, 287, 288
Dodge, K. A., 425
Doherty, F., 176
Doherty, F. M., 148
Dose effects, for Stepping Stones Triple P, 450, 451
Double-bind effect, 199200
Down syndrome, 446, 448t
Driving Mum and Dad Mad (television series), 288, 391392
DRTP (Disaster Recovery Triple P), 275281
Dual roles, of supervision and management, 407408
Dubas, J. S., 13
Duncan, G. J., 19
Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, 530
Dysfunctional parenting, Triple P Online for treatment of, 298, 299


Early Child Care Research Network (ECCN), 189
Early Childhood Early Intervention, 130
Early childhood education, increasing participation in, 243
Early childhood educators, collaboration between parents and, 244
Early childhood learning setting, 242250
implementation issues in, 244247
means for providing parenting support in, 244
practice in, 247249
rationale for providing parenting support in, 243
Ecological fit, of program, 462
Ecological model of development, 253
Ecological sustainability, 523
Economic analyses, of Triple P system, 480
Economic benefits, of early intervention for children with serious problems, 474
Economic factors
in divorce, 217
in parenting practices, 1920, 2223
Eczema, 145, 148
Education, school systems and parents’ role in, 252253
Educational Support and Training Service Bureau (SO&T), 385, 391
Education sector, practitioner training in, 489
EE (expressed emotion), 207
EETP (Emotion-Enhanced Triple P), 522
Effectiveness
across diverse cultural groups, 46
enhancing, of Triple P techniques, 491492
for MAPP Triple P trial, 438439
of parenting programs, 474475
of parenting techniques, 506
of PASS model, 410411
of population health interventions, 478
of program components, 44
of Triple P system, 5152
Effectiveness trials, 464 (p. 546)
Efficacy
of broadcast-media approaches, 286289
collective, 2526
of cultural adaptations for parenting interventions, 338339
of MAPP Triple P trial, 437, 438
of PASS model, 410411
of practitioner training, 377379
of program components, 44
of technology-assisted delivery of parenting programs, 295, 297300
of wide-scale population approach to EBPS, 480
See also Self-efficacy
Efficacy trials, 410411, 444, 463, 481482
Electronic reports, from trainers, 375
EM-DAT, 272
Emotion, and cognitive control, 207
Emotional abuse, prevalence of, 423
Emotional availability, 423
Emotional care, 6
Emotional disorders, and divorce of parents, 217
Emotional outcomes (for children), from MAPP Triple P trial, 439
Emotional problems in childhood
and child maltreatment, 419
for children with developmental disabilities, 82
and chronic health conditions, 146, 148
lifelong problems associated with, 434
and parental adversity, 295
and parental stress, 22
and targeted interventions, 479
Triple P Online for families with, 299
Triple P system to decrease, 34
Emotional regulation, by parents, 1718
Emotional self-regulation, 9
Emotion-Enhanced Triple P (EETP), 522
Empowerment, of parents, 528
Enabling environment, for program, 434435
Endorsement, of population approach to EBPS, 480481
End-user engagement, 46
End-user feedback, 46
Engagement
collaborative, with Indigenous families, 323324
consumer, 25, 46
end-user, 46
of fathers, 48
of fathers, in parenting programs, 188, 190192
for population-level child maltreatment prevention, 427
in Stepping Stones Triple P project, 445446, 451, 452
with technology-assisted delivery of parenting programs, 300
Engagement phase (Triple P Implementation Framework), 364
Engaging environment
developmental effects of, 7
in positive parenting, 64
for young children, 67f
Enhanced Triple P, 193
addressing adverse childhood experiences with, 54
intensity of, 36
Environmental influence
differential susceptibility to, 509510
neuroscience research on, 472473
susceptibility to, 57
Environments, parent-friendly, 493494, 494t
Epigenetics, 7, 42, 322, 473, 509
Essau, C. A., 108
Ethnicity, accommodating, in parenting interventions, 332341
Europe
child care by grandparents in, 19, 197
cultural acceptability studies in, 46
employment of parents in, 262
government support for EBPS programs in, 473
Triple P for parents from, 490
Evaluation studies, of Triple P system, 52
Every Family initiative, 290
Every Family population trial, 56
Every Parent’s Guide to Teenagers, 172, 175, 176
Every Parent’s Self-Help Workbook, 172, 210, 211, 212b
Every Parent’s Survival Guide (video), 488
Evidence base
growth of, 526f
strengthening, for EBPS programs, 504511
Evidence-based approach
with educators in early childhood learning programs, 243
and pediatric primary health care, 232
in successful population approaches, 44
Evidence-based parenting programs (EBPPs)
collaborative partnership adaptation model, 317, 318
culturally diverse families’ accessing of, 307
delivery setting for, 54
delivery systems for, 228
evolution and adaptation of, 457
factors preventing uptake of, 384385
fidelity of, 405413
transportability of, to different cultures, 21 (p. 547)
Evidence-based parenting support (EBPS), 88, 472482
defined, 4, 3334
dissemination of, 517518
face-to-face vs. Internet delivery of, 295
factors in successful implementation of, 360362
flexible tailoring of, 73
future directions for, 527528
implementation issues with, 511521
innovation in, 457458, 486501
myths about, 7475
outcomes of, 395
population effects on, 519
population-level outcomes research for, 481482
rationale for adopting, 472475
solution-focused scientific agenda for, 521527
strengthening evidence base for, 504511
Evidence-based programs (EBPs), 310, 311
delivery threats for, 406
fidelity of scaled up, 371372
implementation of, 359
with Indigenous families, 321, 323325
for residential care center staff, 179
Expectations (parental)
of children with developmental disabilities, 123
developing, in parenting, 67
influences on, 1617
realistic, 65, 67f
of self-regulating parents, 41
Experience-dependent synapse formation, 8
Experience-expectant processes, 8
Expressed emotion (EE), 207
Extended family
parents’ relationships with, 19
Extension courses, for practitioners, 379
Externalizing behavior disorder, 136
Externalizing behavior problems, 8593
development of behavior problems, 86
family interventions for, 8788
influence of parenting on, 89
parenting and family factors in outcomes for, 8687
prevalence of, 81
Triple P for families of, 8891
Externalizing behaviors
as serious mental health issue, 135
as term, 85
Extra Program (television show), 291
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), 399


Face-to-face interventions
self-directed vs., 301
technology-assisted delivery vs., 295, 297
Facilitative leadership, 366
Facilitative parenting (FP), 11, 527
Facilitators, of Triple P interventions, 37t38t
Faddism, 500
Families (television series), 287, 488
Families Together program, 426b
Family(-ies)
adapting positive parenting programs to, 185187
broadcast-media approaches and privacy of, 290
and children with developmental disabilities, 121122
culture within, 333
effects of population-level approach on, 434
grandparents’ involvement in, 197198
impact of mental health problems on, 206207
implementation issues related to religious beliefs of, 348350
Indigenous, 321329
needs of, and Triple P program, 39, 39f
and outcomes for adolescents/young adults with psychosocial difficulties, 171
and outcomes for children with anxiety problems, 108110
parenting interventions for (See Parenting interventions)
religious beliefs of (See Religious beliefs)
responding to needs of culturally diverse, 307309
Triple P applications with diverse, 490
Family commitments, balancing work and, in workplace setting, 263264, 263b
Family conflict, reducing, with Teen Triple P, 174175
Family diversity, as challenge for population approaches, 5354
Family dysfunction in childhood, stress related to, 14
Family environment, and serious mental health issues, 138
Family-focused interventions, 111
Family-friendly communities, creating, 493494
Family interventions
for children with conduct disorders, 32
parents with severe mental health problems, 210211 (p. 548)
Family members
adapting positive parenting programs to, 185187
delivery of parenting support to, 334
inclusion of, in Triple P model, 47
parenting advice from, 17
See also specific types, e.g.: Fathers
Family-of-orgin experiences, of parents, 14
Family problems, assumptions about causes of, 391392
Family psychology, preservice training in, 519520
Family stress, and chronic health conditions, 145
Family-to-work conflict (FWC), 263264
Family Transitions Triple P, 70, 187, 193, 219222, 221b
addressing adverse childhood experiences with, 54
development of, 51
intensity of, 36
Family violence, and child development, 7
Farrington, D. P., 22
Farruggia, S. P., 174
Father involvement, benefits of, 188189
Father preference data, 193
Fathers, 188194
barriers to participation by, 190
in children’s development, 188189
engagement of, in parenting programs, 188
future research directions, 193
improving participation by, 491, 492
involvement of, in Lifestyle Triple P program, 165
parenting programs that are inclusive for, 190
participation and outcomes of parenting interventions with mothers vs., 185186
participation in parenting programs by, 48
practice with, 192193
quality of relationships with, 185
Triple P to increase engagement by, 190192
Fatigue, and executive functioning, 207
Fatty liver disease, 157
Fear
definition of, 107
See also Anxiety
Fear-less Triple P, 10, 70, 113114, 114t
Feasibility testing, 410412, 463
Federally funded systems of care, 428
Feedback
in Lifestyle Triple P program, 164165
and PASS model, 409410, 411b
in practitioner training course, 376
for program refinement, 463
from Triple P end-users and consumers, 46
on Triple P Online Brief, 300b
for Triple P trainers, 375
Feeding disorders, children with, 490
Felitti, V. J., 54
Fergusson, E., 198199
Fertility, 197
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, 448t
Fetal alcohol syndrome, 446
Fidelity
as challenge for population approaches, 53
of evidence-based parenting programs, 405413
flexibility vs. fidelity tradeoff, 305, 308
and open-ended accreditation for practitioners, 380
policing, 512
and practitioner adherence/competence, 406
promoting program, 4849
supervision to improve, 358, 407, 410
training practitioners to improve, 371372
Field of Dreams (film), 383384
Fighting, 171
File, N., 11
Filus, A., 10, 113
Financially insecure families, 336t
First 5 Santa Cruz County, 426b
First Nations people. See Indigenous families
Fiscal value, of population approaches to EBPS, 57
Fit
of Triple P program, 364
Fit, cultural, 307
Fives, A., 50, 257, 475, 481
Fixsen, D. L., 437
Flexibility vs. fidelity tradeoff
in cultural adaptations of Triple P, 308, 335
in practitioner training course, 376
Flexible delivery, 335
Flexible tailoring
of program delivery, 73, 507
of Triple P program, 49
Focus groups, 463
Foote, N., 473
Ford, L. A., 112
Formal program modifications, for cultural adaptation, 335
Formal schooling, readiness for, 1011
Forum on Promoting Children’s Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Health, 239
Fox, T. L., 108
FP (facilitative parenting), 11, 527
Fragile X, 448t
Frank, T. J., 48, 190193 (p. 549)
Functional analysis, and serious mental health issues, 139
Funding
for EBPS programs, 473
for parenting services and programs, 56, 477, 500
parenting support in primary health care, 237
for population-level child maltreatment prevention, 428
for successful population approaches, 45, 55
FWC (family-to-work conflict), 263264


Gamification, 299
Gatekeepers, 99, 372
Gencer, O., 112
Gene-driven processes, 8
Gene expression, 509
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), 113
Generalization
of parenting skills, 74
of Triple P system, 81
Generalized anxiety disorder, 107
General practitioners (GPs), 164, 232, 234
Generational transfer
of anxiety, 108109
of externalizing behavior problems, 8687
of serious mental health issues, 136, 137
Generic parenting programs, branded vs., 516517
Genetic influences, on parenting, 13
Gentleman, A., 390
Germany
anxiety disorders in, 108
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
culture of, 333
Workplace Triple P in, 267
GHQ (General Health Questionnaire), 113
Gifted and talented children, Triple P variants for families with, 490
Glasgow, R. E., 478
Glazemakers, I., 139140
Global praise, 491
Glynn, T., 83
“Going to scale,” 445
Golding, J., 198199
Government databases, measuring population-level outcomes from, 398399
Grandmother hypothesis, 197
Grandparents, 196204
clinical implications of working with, 203
as custodial vs. informal caregivers, 197198
impact of, on family, 198200
involvement of, in family, 197198
parents’ relationships with, 19
relevance of parenting interventions for, 200
stress associated with parenting by, 186
Triple P for, 490
Triple P variant for, 200203
Grandparent Triple P (GTP), 200203, 201t, 202b
Grasso, D. J., 18
Graziano, P. A., 100
Group Lifestyle Triple P, 36, 70, 160, 161t, 162
Group Pathways Triple P, 70
Group sessions, with both parents, 191
Group Stepping Stones Triple P, 36
Group supervision, 408
Group Teen Triple P, 36
Groupthink, 408
Group Triple P, 90, 253
addressing adverse childhood experiences with, 54
in collaborative partnership adaptation model, 313
consumer expectations about, 515
efficacy of, in other countries, 338, 339
Family Transitions Triple P, 220
and father involvement, 191, 192b
with fathers, 492
with grandparents, 186
implementation of, in Africa, 335b
inclusiveness of, 48
increasing complexity of, 522
with Indigenous families, 325
intensity of, 36
in the workplace, 266267
Guided participation model of information transfer, 73


Hallucinations, 210
Hammington, J., 522
Hanf, Constance, 517
Harrington, D., 108
Harsh discipline, of children with developmental disabilities, 123
Hart, B., 8
Harvey, E. A., 189
Haslam, D., 274
Havighurst, S., 254
Hayslip, B., 199
Health belief model, 389
Health disparities, 308, 492
Health insurance, 56, 500
Health-promoting behaviors, 139
Health Promotion Strategic Framework, 433 (p. 550)
Health risk behaviors, 285
Health sector, practitioner training in, 489
Health Service Executive, 436
Health services, perinatal contact with, 208
Healthy Child Manitoba initiative, 477
Healthy Ireland, 433
Healthy Steps, 232
Healy, K. L., 100, 527
Healy, K. M., 11
Heary, C., 50, 257, 475
Heckman, J., 474
Help, parenting, 392
Helping Children Learn New Ways to Behave (online module), 246
Helping Families Change Conference (HFCC), 514t, 525
Helping Your Child Reach Their Potential (seminar), 125
Henderson, M., 191, 209
Herbert, S. D., 189
Heritability, of serious mental health issues, 136
Hertwig, R., 199
HFCC (Helping Families Change Conference), 514t, 525
Hierarchy of needs, 279
High-risk variations, of Triple P system, 49
High/Scope approach, 244, 245
Hobfoll, S. E., 273
Hofstede, G., 333
Home, child outcomes in, 396
Home, working at, 262
Home–school partnership (term), 252
Hong, J., 12
Hong Kong, 235236, 313, 338
Hong Kong Chinese, 202
Hospital records, measuring population-level outcomes from, 398
Hostile parenting style, 274
House of Tiny Tearaways (television show), 287
Housing, for Indigenous families, 322
Hurricane Katrina, 277
Hyperactive behaviors
and father involvement, 189
Triple P Online for children with, 299


IAPT (Increased Access to Psychological Therapies) program, 511
Iles, J., 190
Implementation and Maintenance phase (Triple P Implementation Framework), 365
Implementation consultant (IC), 363, 365367
Implementation framework
in early childhood learning settings, 244247
large-scale population-level, 357358, 419421
partnership approach to, 433440
of population health interventions, 478
in primary health care settings, 236237
in school systems, 257258
successful EBPS, 360362
training practitioners for, 371381
of Triple P system, 359368
Implementation issues
with cultural adaptations for parenting interventions, 337338
with EBPS programs, 511521
with partnership approach to population-level implementation, 439
with population-wide approach to child maltreatment prevention, 426428
Implementation Planning phase (Triple P Implementation Framework), 364365
Implementation science
innovations to accommodate advances in, 491
and sustainability of intervention, 511512
and Triple P system, 360
Implementation team, in MAPP Triple P trial, 436, 437
Impulse control, parenting and child’s, 9
Impulsive behaviors, and father involvement, 189
Inattentiveness
and father involvement, 189
Triple P Online for children with, 299
Incidental teaching, 64
Inclusiveness, of Triple P program, 4748, 528
Increased Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) program, 511
Incredible Years, 232, 248, 249, 517
Independently-led research, 466467
Independent observational methods, 399
Indigenous families, 321329
cultural accommodation approach with, 326327
delivery of parenting support in, 322323
engaging, in evidence-based parenting interventions, 373b
future research directions, 327328
health and social disparities for, 308
sociopolitical factors in children’s well-being, 321322
Triple P implementation with, 323326
Triple P with, 490
Indigenous Youth Health Services, 326
Individualistic–autonomous cultures, 333
Individual-level parenting support, 2526
Individual outcomes (of interventions)
for children, parents, and families, 395397
measuring, 397398 (p. 551)
Indonesia, 236, 313, 339
Infants
effect of parenting programs on development of, 494, 495
parental tasks and responsibilities during, 24t
spanking of, 137
Triple P for parents of, 490
Inflammation, family environment and, 509
Informal caregivers, grandparents as, 197198
Information-processing deficits, 86
Infotainment-style programming, 287
Inner setting, in CFIR, 427
Innovation
addressing obstacles to, 498
for program development, 469
research networks to enhance, 525
Innovation, in evidence-based parenting support, 51, 486501
areas requiring, 491498
and creating a culture of innovation, 498500
overview, 457458
with Triple P system, 487491
Institute of Medicine, 57
Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Netherlands), 385
Integrated systems, implementing, 56
Integration, in health care, 232233
Intellectual disabilities (IDs)
defined, 442
inequalities for people with, 442
Intellectual property, and collaborative partnership adaptation model, 318
Intention, action and, 389
Interactional processes, influence of, on parenting, 1415
Interagency partnerships, 58
Internalizing behavior, child outcomes in, 396
Internalizing disorders, 136
International Parenting Survey (IPS), 50, 400, 400b, 514t
International Research Training Program (IRTP-P), 514t
Internet, 90
delivery of Triple P via, 230, 294 (See also Triple P Online)
as example of mass media, 286
and working at home, 262
Interpersonal relationships, and externalizing behavior disorders, 85
Interservice supervision, 407
Interventions
for children with externalizing behavior problems, 8788
for children with peer relationship problems, 99101
with divorced/separated parents, 218222
in families of children with chronic health conditions, 147
religious beliefs and efficacy of, 350
Interviews, measuring individual outcomes with, 397
Intimate partner violence (IPV), 18
Investing in Families, 433
Investment, in Triple P research and development, 51
Involvement (term), 252
IPV (intimate partner violence), 18
Iran, 313
Ireland
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
population approach to parenting in, 420
prevalence of borderline/problematic behavioral difficulties in children, 433434
IRTP-P (International Research Training Program), 514t
Iterative development process, 461f, 462
ITV, 288
Iyer, A., 11, 100


Jacobson, J., 348
Japan, 313, 338
Jia, R., 189
Joint Commissioning Panel for Mental Health (JCP-MH), 208


Kaminski, P. L., 199
Kazdin, A. E., 108
Keane, S. P., 100
Kendall-Taylor, N., 476
Kennedy, S., 232
Kenya, 313, 335
Keown, L. J., 190193
KIDDIE-SADS-PL (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime), 113
Kirby, J. N., 46, 48, 49, 253
Kotila, L. E., 189
Kumpfer, K., 311, 312 (p. 552)


Labeled (descriptive) praise, 491, 506
Ladd, G. W., 98, 99
Language
parenting and learning of, 8
in positive parenting programs, 492
Large-scale population-level implementation
preparing for, 50
real-world examples of, 419421
successful, 357358
Large-scale population-level studies
future, 56
of Triple P effectiveness, 5253
Large-scale rollouts, of Triple P system, 366367, 367f
Latin America
culture of countries in, 333
research on parenting interventions in, 527
support for EBPS programs in, 473
Launch, of marketing campaign materials, 388
Laypeople
as practitioners of Triple P, 340
practitioner training for, 489
LCP (life-course-persistent) path, 86
Lead agency, for parenting support, 229
Leadership, facilitative, 366
Learning, early childhood. See Early childhood learning setting
Learning environment
in positive parenting, 64
for young children, 67f
Learning problems, and externalizing behavior disorders, 85
Learning to parent, 5
Lebowitz, E. R., 112
Level 1 interventions, 36, 37t
Level 2 interventions, 36, 37t, 173, 234, 339
Level 3 interventions, 36, 37t, 174175, 191, 233, 234, 339
Level 4 interventions, 36, 37t, 175, 176, 176b, 191, 200201, 297, 425, 506
Level 5 interventions, 36, 38t
Life-changing experiences, and religious beliefs, 345
Life course approach to implementation
in low and middle-income countries, 338
Life-course-persistent (LCP) path, 86
Life skills, as focus of parenting programs, 493
Life span, parenting across child’s, 23, 24t
Life-span perspective, of Triple P system, 45
Lifestyle, and childhood obesity, 158
Lifestyle Triple P, 83, 160, 161t
and childhood obesity, 160163, 161t
development of, 51
Lifestyle Triple P Seminar Series, 160, 162, 163, 163b
Light-touch programs, 35, 36
Lindland, E., 476
Little Angels (television show), 287
Loeber, R., 22
Logical consequences, in Teen Triple P, 173
Long, N., 473, 509510
Longford county, Ireland, 435439
Longford Westmeath Parenting Partnership, 361, 433
Love, S. M., 257, 299
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)
EBP programs in, 307
efficacy of Triple P in, 338339
future research on Triple P in, 339340
implementing parenting programs in, 55
parenting support implementation in, 337338
Triple P systems delivered by volunteers in, 521
Low-resource environments, implementing parenting programs in, 55
Low-risk variations, of Triple P system, 49
Low socioeconomic groups, families from, 481
Lucassen, N., 189
Lugo-Candelas, C. I., 189


Maintenance
of population health interventions, 478
of support for population-level interventions, 428
Maladaptive parental adjustment, 450
Maladjustment, and divorce of parents, 217
Malfunctioning families, 390
Manitoba Education and Training, 477
Manitoba Families, 477
Manitoba Health, Seniors and Active Living, 477
Manitoba Indigenous and Municipal Relations, 477
Manitoba Justice, 477
Manitoba Sport, 477
Manualized interventions, 372, 517
Māori community, 21, 308, 314317
Māori parents
Triple P with, 490
values orientation of, 528
Marital interaction theories, 521
Marital quality, and children with developmental disabilities, 123124 (p. 553)
Marketing
four Ps of, 384
Marks, I. M., 107
Marmot, M., 42, 481
Maslow, A., 279
Mason, J., 199
Mass media programs, Triple P delivery via, 489
MATCH (Modular Approach to Therapy for Children), 516
Matshazi, D., 138
Maughan, B., 198199
May, V., 199
Mazzucchelli, T. G., 49, 130, 507, 517
MBU (mother and baby unit), 208
McDermott, B., 274
McDowell, D. J., 11, 9899
McLaughlin, B., 200
MECC (model of engaging communities collaboratively), 324
Media and communication strategy, 284292, 489490
Medical insurance, and parenting services/programs, 56, 500
Medical model, for mental health treatment of adolescents, 178
Medical treatments, compliance with, 12
Medicare, 500
Medications
for chronic health conditions, 146, 147
and externalizing behavior problems, 88
substance-/medication-induced anxiety disorder, 107
Mellow Bumps, 209
Memorandum of understanding (MoU), 435
Men, as practitioners, 492
Mendlowitz, S., 111
Mental health problems
adolescents/young adults with psychosocial difficulties, 171179
with bipolar parents, 18
and child maltreatment, 419
child maltreatment by parents with, 423
developmental disabilities with, 443
government policies on prevention of, 474
and mental health of children, 444
parenting and, 6
and parenting practices, 1718, 21
parents having, 444
parents with, 1718
prevalence of, in children and adolescents, 135, 141, 295
Triple P for parents with, 490
Mental health settings, parenting interventions in, 138139
Metacognition, and parenting by father, 189
Metzler, C. W., 287
Middle childhood, parental tasks and responsibilities in, 24t
Middle East
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
cultural acceptability studies in, 46
research on parenting interventions in, 527
Triple P for parents from, 490
Midland Area Parenting Partnership (MAPP), 433
establishing, 435
implementation issues for, 439
implementation structure of, 438f
model of implementation from, 439440
Triple P trial of, 435439
Miller, C., 288
Miller, G. E., 509
Mindfulness, 522
Minimally sufficient interventions
and children with disabilities, 129
in MAPP Triple P trial, 436
in multilevel system of parenting support, 488
in population approach to EBPS, 479
in positive parenting, 73
in successful population approaches, 44
Misbehavior
in children with disabilities, 128
managing, 69t
Model of engaging communities collaboratively (MECC), 324
Modular Approach to Therapy for Children (MATCH), 516
Moffitt, T. E., 9, 86, 509
Montessori approach, 244, 245
Montgomery, D., 287
Mood disorders, 207
Moore, P., 112
Moran, K., 207
Morawska, A., 172
Mortality, premature, 157
Mother and baby unit (MBU), 208
Mothers
child outcomes and distress in, 444 (p. 554)
and children with developmental disabilities, 123
Mothers (cont.)
in Disaster Recovery Triple P program, 275281
food preferences of, 158
mental health problems in, 208
participation and outcomes of parenting interventions with fathers vs., 185186
participation in parenting programs by, 48
working, as role models, 263
Motivation
and beliefs/values, 383384
in early childhood education, 245
MoU (memorandum of understanding), 435
Multidisciplinary collaborations, 524525
Multidisciplinary training, 488489
Multilevel system
for delivering minimally sufficient interventions, 73
development of, 458, 487488
implementing local systems vs., 56
minimal sufficiency in, 479
and other evidence-based programs, 481
for population-level child maltreatment prevention, 427
of Triple P, 3540, 36f, 4546
Multimethod assessments, of individual outcomes, 397398
Murray, D. W., 480
Murray, J., 22
Muslim Arabs, 308, 348
Muslim parents
cultural adaptations for, 21, 335
health promotion with, 348
in United Kingdom, 345, 348
My Say survey, 446447, 514t


Nairobi, Kenya, 335
Nanny 911 (television show), 287
National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, 239
National Academy of Parenting Practitioners, 473
National Disability Insurance Scheme, 130, 505
National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), 445
National Implementation Research Network Active Implementation Frameworks, 363
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), 208, 210211, 473
Nationally coordinated parenting websites, 515
National Research Council, 57
Natural disasters, 272281
delivery of Triple P after, 279280
efficacy of postdisaster parenting support programs, 276278
future research directions, 280
importance of parenting support after, 274275
parenting programs after, 495
significance of, for children, 272273
Triple P for parents after, 490
Triple P variant for disaster recovery, 275276
Neglect
defined, 423
prevalence of, 423
Neighborhood factors, in parenting, 20
Netherlands, 162, 234, 235, 313
New South Wales, Australia, 450, 451
New Zealand
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313318
Families television series in, 287
support for EBPS programs in, 473
Triple P for parents from, 490
Triple P seminars in, 236
Triple P with Indigenous families in, 373
Ngāti Hine Health Trust, 314
Nguyen, B., 164
NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council), 445
NicGabhainn, S., 50, 257, 475
NICHD, 189
Nickel, A., 12
Nonresponders, parenting program, 510511
Nonshared responsibilities, of caregivers, 185
Normalization
of parenting support, 390391
in population-based interventions, 445
North America
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
cultural acceptability studies in, 46
Triple P for parents from, 490
North Asia, cultural acceptability studies in, 46
Norway, 333
Not-for-profit organizations, funding for parenting programs at, 56
Null findings, 499
Nurse–Family Partnership, 494
Nurses, 232
“Nurturance trap,” 123 (p. 555)
Nurturing care, 337338
Nurturing environment, 7


Observational learning, 286
ODD (oppositional defiant disorder), 85, 139
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), 243
Older children, safe and engaging environment for, 64
OMR (outcome measures repository), 514t
Online community, 299
Online modules, in PECE, 246, 247
Online parenting support, 489
Online programs, for parents of adolescents and young adults, 178179
Online training, 380, 516
Open-ended accreditation, 380
Open Enrollment courses, 379
Openness, to parenting support, 391
Oppositional behavior, 174175
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 85, 139
Optimal Solutions Consulting, 426b
Oral history, cultures with, 336t
Organizational context, 361
Organizational infrastructure, innovation-supporting, 498
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 243
Outcome evaluations
importance of, 358
session-by-session, 511
in Triple P program, 49
Outcome measures repository (OMR), 514t
Outcome research
on child maltreatment prevention, 426
implementation as factor in, 359, 361
null findings in, 499
on population-based EBPS, 481482
Outcomes (child)
anxiety problems, 108110
and complexity of Triple P system, 522
developmental disabilities, 122124
and distress in mothers, 444
externalizing behavior problems, 8687
measuring, 397398
of parenting interventions, 395397
and parenting research, 523
peer relationship problems, 9899
Outcomes (family)
measuring, 397398
of parenting interventions, 396397
parent report measures of, 399
and PASS model, 412
Outcomes (parent), 395397, 395401
assessing Triple P outcomes, 399400
and chronic health condition outcomes, 146147
evaluation of, 49
for fathers vs. mothers, 185186
future research directions, 400
measuring, 397398
measuring individual, 397398
measuring population-level, 398399
of parenting interventions, 396
research on predictors of, 298
Outcomes focus, in MAPP Triple P trial, 436
Outdoor meetings, adaptations of Triple P for, 336t
Outer setting, in CFIR, 427
Out-of-home care, Indigenous children in, 322
Outreach, in Stay Positive strategy, 390
Overeating, and childhood obesity, 158
Overprotection, 109110, 146
Overweight, 159
Oxytocin, 13
Ozbek, A., 112
Ozturk, Y., 112
Ozyurt, G., 112


PAFAS (Parent and Family Adjustment Scale), 399
Paid employment, parent’s return to, 185, 229
Pain, recurrent, 139
Palmer, M. L., 191
Palmieri, P. A., 198
Paloutzian, R. F., 345
Panama, 235, 296, 313, 338, 339, 490
Panic disorder, 107
Parental discipline. See Discipline
Parental influence, 5
Parental warmth, bullying and lack of, 100
Parent and Family Adjustment Scale (PAFAS), 399
Parent blaming, 391
Parent-centered obesity programs, 159
Parent–child conflict, and child externalizing behavior problems, 9
Parent–child interactions
developmental impact of, 423
influence of, on parenting, 1415
Parent–child relationship(s)
and children’s development, 4 (p. 556)
and chronic health conditions, 146147
effects on children and parents of, 3
good, 68t
Parent–child relationship(s) (cont.)
influence of parenting on, 5
and peer relationship problems, 98
in positive parenting programs, 75
in Teen Triple P, 173
in Triple P program, 45
for young adults, 177178
Parent consultation, 492
Parent Consultation Skills Checklist (PCSC), 377, 378f
Parent engagement (term), 252253
Parent-friendly environments, 493494, 494t
Parenting, 526
across child’s life span, 23, 24t
“anxiety-maintaining,” 110
at-home, 253
and child maltreatment, 422423
and children’s development, 3, 5, 712
community influence on, 528
determinants of, 1323
difficulty in, and outcomes of parenting intervention, 298
fathers’ vs. mothers’ participation in, 185186
functions of, 67
impact of, on children, 422423
in MAPP Triple P trial, 439, 440
measuring success in, 529
natural disasters and patterns of, 276
and outcomes for adolescents/young adults with psychosocial difficulties, 171
parent report measures of, 399
positive (See Positive parenting)
and poverty reduction, 527
preservice training in, 519520
provision of parenting programs, 23, 2526
public perceptions about importance of, 476477
universal principles of, 333334
Parenting After a Disaster Checklist (PADC), 278
Parenting and Family Adjustment Scale (PAFAS), 450, 450f
Parenting and family interventionists, training for, 498499, 520
Parenting and Family Support Centre (PFSC), 51, 377, 468, 488, 491, 525
Parenting interventions
accommodating race/ethnicity in, 332341
and children with developmental disabilities, 124
for families of adolescents/young adults with psychosocial difficulties, 172
in families of children with serious mental health problems, 138139
and grandparents, 200
outcomes of, 395401
for prevention of child maltreatment, 424
self-directed vs. face-to-face, 301
Parenting programs
changing attitudes about, 529530
coordinating investments in, 477
and development of infants, 494, 495
effectiveness of, 474475
for families of children with developmental disabilities, 444
funding for, 56
generic vs. branded, 516517
innovation in, 486501
nonresponders in, 510511
participation in, 39
provision of, 23, 2526
public’s view of, 390392
pull demand for, 25
and social support, 20
technology-assisted delivery of, 294302
See also specific types
Parenting research
child’s perspective in, 523524
Parenting Research Centre, 391
Parenting Scale, 399
Parenting skills, 506
and children with developmental disabilities, 124
generalization of, 74
public perception of, 476
and self-efficacy, 396
of self-regulating parent, 41
Parenting skills programs, 112
Parenting styles, 158
Parenting support system
after natural disasters, 272281
delivery of, 372373
delivery of, in collaborative partnership adaptation model, 312316
delivery of, in Indigenous families, 322323
in different countries, 334
in early childhood learning setting, 242250
in families of children with anxiety problems, 110112
lead agency for, 229
for parents of adolescents and young adults, 178
and peer relationship problems, 99 (p. 557)
in primary health care setting, 231239
rationale for providing, in school systems, 254255
in school systems, 252259
in workplace setting, 262268
Parenting support workforce, diversifying the, 520
Parenting Tasks Checklist (PTC), 399
Parenting websites, nationally coordinated, 515
Parent management training, 32. See also Behavioral parent training
Parent report measures, assessing outcomes of Triple P with, 399
Parents
anxiety in, 109
applications of Triple P for diverse, 490
bullying and involvement of, 98
chronic health conditions and self-efficacy of, 146
cultural influence on reactions by, 334
effects of parent–child relationship for, 3
empowerment of, 528
experience of Triple P by, 40f
externalizing behavior problems and responsiveness of, 87
needs of, and religious beliefs, 349350
points of contact for, 227228
post-traumatic stress in, 274
professional and public attitudes toward, 505506
relationship between, 18
separating/divorced, 216222
with serious mental health problems, 206212
well-being of, and children with developmental disabilities, 123124
and workplace settings, 264265
See also Fathers; Mothers
Parent tip sheet, 449
Parent-to-parent social contagion, 57
Parke, R. D., 11, 9899
Participation
in parenting programs, 39, 506
in population approach to EBPS, 478479
in targeted interventions, 475
targets for, 5051, 58
in universal programs, 358
Partnership approach to population-level implementation, 433440
establishing, 435
future of, 439440
implementation issues with, 439
with Indigenous populations, 327328
rationale for using, 434435
trial of, 435439
and Triple P in Irish Midlands, 433434
Partnerships
benefits of, 435
with community organizations, 488
interagency, 58
in population-level interventions, 434435
in Stay Positive strategy, 388
for Triple P implementation, 49
Patel, V., 516, 521
Pathways Triple P
addressing adverse childhood experiences with, 54
development of, 51
intensity of, 36
Patient care coordinators, 232
Patterson, G. R., 15, 486
PCSC (Parent Consultation Skills Checklist), 377, 378f
Pediatricians, 232
Pediatric primary health care settings. See Primary health care settings
Peer-assisted supervision and support (PASS), 53, 248, 358, 406407, 513t
acceptability and feasibility of, 410412
efficacy and effectiveness of, 410411
feedback on, 411b
future research directions, 412
in population-level child maltreatment prevention, 428
in practitioner training course, 376
supervision and posttraining support with, 409410
Peer facilitators, PASS, 409
Peer relationship problems, children with, 97102
case example, 102b
future research directions, 101102
nature of relationship problems for children, 9798
parenting and family interventions for, 99101
parenting factors in outcomes for, 9899
Triple P for families of, 101
Triple P variants for families with, 490
Peer relationships
developmental role of, 82 (p. 558)
influence of parenting on, 11
Peers, in PASS model, 409
Peer supervision, 408
Penetration, intervention, 426
Perceived adulthood status, 177178
Perfection, 65
Perinatal mental health, 208209
Permissive parenting, 75
Personal agency, 72
Philosophical approach, to early childhood education, 244
Phobias, 107
Physical abuse
prevalence of, 423
and serious mental health issues, 136, 137
Physical health of children
anxiety and, 108
effect of parenting on, 12
influence of, on parenting, 15
parenting’s impact on, 423
Physical health problems
adolescents/young adults with psychosocial difficulties, 171179
Physicians, 232
Physiological needs, 279
Pickering, J. A., 12
Pilot studies, 463
Place-based delivery, 301
Planned activities training (PAT), 88
Planned consequences, 7
Planned ignoring, 173
Plasticity, 57, 473
Pluess, M., 57
Policy
and adolescents/young adults with psychosocial difficulties, 178179
and child obesity, 164165
and children with developmental disabilities, 129130
and children with disabilities, 130
and corporal punishment, 22
current environment, 473474
and divorce, 221
environment for successful population approaches, 45
Popular culture, parenting programs in, 500
Population approach to evidence-based interventions
for families of children with developmental disabilities, 444445
Population-based approach
to childhood obesity, 159160
with culturally diverse families, 307
impacts of, 434
implementation of, 420
to parenting support, 487
practitioners with expertise in, 498499
in Triple P system, 3435
Population-based approach to evidence-based parenting support, 4, 3259
adoption of, 23, 25
challenges with, 5355
for childhood obesity, 156166
criteria for successful, 42, 44, 45
current state of, 475481
and determinants of parenting, 13
future research directions, 5657
historical foundations of, 3334
outcome research on, 481482
overview of, 34
and public policy, 5558
strengthening evidence base for, 504511
Population-based interventions, targeted vs., 445
Population effects, on EBPS programs, 519
Population health interventions, 478
Population health theory, 521
Population-level change
child well-being, 50
EBPS programs, 395, 481482
large-scale, 357358, 419421
measuring, 398399
mediators and moderators of, 57
partnership approach to, 433440
technology-assisted delivery, 294295
Triple P system, 5253
Population-wide approach to child maltreatment prevention, 422429
emerging evidence on, 424425
implementation issues with, 426428
measurement and design issues with, 425426
parenting risk and child maltreatment, 422423
rationale for, 424
Positief Opvenden campaign, 385, 387f
Positive Early Childhood Education Program (PECE), 242, 245250, 248b
Positive learning environment
in positive parenting, 64
for young children, 67f
Positive parenting, 6376
adapting, to family and family members, 185187
applications of, 8183 (p. 559) (See also specific topics)
better techniques for, 506507
broadcast-media approaches to, 284292
and chronic health conditions, 146, 148
core principles, 4, 6366
core principles of, 35
delivering support for, 7274
delivery systems for, 227230 (See also specific topics)
genetic/biologic differences in effects of, 509510
language used in, 492
myths about, 7475
parental self-regulation in, 7072
religious beliefs and values in, 344351
techniques for specific populations of children, 6670, 67t69t
Positive Parenting for Children With a Disability (seminar), 125
Positive Parenting for Healthy Living, 51, 147149
Positive parenting principles, 4, 35, 6366, 67t
Positive Parenting Program. See Triple P system
Postdisater parenting support programs, 276278
Postnatal depression, 207
Postnatal nurse home-visiting program, 425
Postpartum psychosis, 208
Posttraining support. See Supervision and posttraining support
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
children with, 22
and natural disasters, 272, 273
Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), 274
Potentially traumatic events (PTEs), 273, 274
Poverty
and child development, 7
government policies on children living in, 474
improving outcomes of parenting programs for families in, 492493
influence of, on parenting, 1920
parenting to reduce, 527
Powell, D. R., 11
Power imbalances, in supervision, 408
The Power of Positive Parenting (seminar), 234, 267
Practice sessions, in PECE, 246
Practitioner manuals, 4849
Practitioner–parent relationship, 511
Practitioners
diversity of, 520
gender ratio for, 492
in implementation studies, 361
job satisfaction and turnover among, 243, 245
laypeople as, 340
preparing, for difficult cases, 515
professionalizing of, 515516
supervision for, 407409
of Teen Triple P, 178
training for, 58, 357, 371381
Practitioner training courses, 375377
Prader-Willi syndrome, 449t
Praise, 245, 491, 506
Prenatal stress, and chronic health conditions, 145, 146
Preschool children
parental tasks and responsibilities with, 24t
Triple P for parents of, 490
Triple P system for, 81
Prevention (prevention model)
for parenting support, 487
with Stepping Stones Triple P, 125
Prevention domain (public health), 3
behavioral parenting training in, 33
focus on, 458
Preventive interventions, and well-child health care visits, 232
Priebe, S., 207
Primary care providers, 228
Primary Care Triple P (PCTP), 88, 89, 229, 233236, 235b, 521
Primary health care settings, 231239
efficacy of Triple P in, 234236
future policy on interventions in, 238
implementation challenges in, 236237
implementation of Triple P in, 233234
means for providing parenting support in, 232233
rationale for providing support in, 231232
Principles of positive parenting. See Positive parenting principles
Prinz, R. J., 50, 255, 425, 480
Privacy concerns, with broadcast-media approaches, 290
Problem behaviors
of adolescents, 83
managing, in Teen Triple P, 173
prevalence of Irish children with, 433434
Problem-solving
and children with developmental disabilities, 124
in parental self-regulation, 72
and parenting practices, 16
Process factors, in CFIR, 427
Proctor, E., 407
Proctor, E. K., 360, 361
Professional development training, 247248 (p. 560)
Professionalization, of practitioner workforce, 515516
Professional resource sheet (Stepping Stones Triple P), 449
Professional support
culturally accommodated, 324
for technology-assisted delivery of parenting programs, 301
Program delivery, culturally accommodated, 325
Program design, 462
Program developers, research led by, 466
Program development, 457458, 460470
conflicts-of-interest and, 467468
critical appraisal and innovation for, 469
process of, 461466
risk management in, 466468
for web-based interventions, 296
Program refinement, 463, 464
Promotion domain (public health), 3
Proof-of-concept phase, 463
Proportionate universalism, 42, 45, 48, 481
Prosocial behavior, 396
Prosocial skills, 493
Psychopharmacological treatment, and developmental disability, 122. See also Medications
Psychosis, 97, 207, 208, 210, 211
Psychosocial difficulties, adolescents and young adults with, 171179
effect of population approach to EBPS on, 475, 476f
parenting and family factors in outcomes for, 171
parenting interventions for families of, 172
policy issues for, 178179
practice with, 178
Triple P variants for families of, 172178
PTC (Parenting Tasks Checklist), 399
PTSS (post-traumatic stress symptoms), 274
Public awareness phase (Stay Positive strategy), 388
Public health, 3
childhood obesity as issue of, 156, 158
efficacy of interventions, 480
Puerperal psychosis, 208
“Pull” demand, for parenting programs, 25, 493, 512
Punishment
of children with developmental disabilities, 123
corporal, 22, 338
in positive parenting programs, 75
Pursell, L., 50, 257, 475
Purveyor organization, 362


Qualitative feedback, 247
Quality assurance (QA), 457458
continuous, 460
defined, 460
in development process, 461, 462
example of, 469b
implications of focus on, 469, 470
supervision for, 407, 410
Quality control (QC) procedures
defined, 461
in development process, 461
in pilot studies, 463
Quality management, supervision for, 358
Queensland, Australia, 275277, 280, 446, 447
Queensland Children and Family Commission, 390391
Queensland Health, 313
Questionnaires, measuring individual outcomes with, 397
Quiet time, 65, 173
Quist, R., 138


Race, accommodating, in parenting interventions, 332341
Radio programs, 289
Radner, J. M., 473
Raising Confident, Competent Children (seminar), 234
Raising Resilient Children (seminar), 234
Ralph, A., 172, 175, 176, 374
Ramchandani, P., 190
Reach (of intervention)
of population health interventions, 478, 478b
of successful population approaches, 44
of universal parenting support, 481
Reading materials, for Triple P in low- and middle-income countries, 340
RE-AIM framework, 363, 446, 478, 521
Realistic expectations
in positive parenting, 65
for young children, 67f
Recurrent pain, 139
Refugees, parenting programs for, 495
Reggio Emilia approach, 244
Reinares, M., 210
Reinforcement, of parental behavior, 1516
Rejection, and chronic health conditions, 146
Relational competency, 527
Relational frame theory, 522
Relationship breakdown, as stressor for parents, 186 (p. 561)
Relationship problems with peers. See Peer relationship problems, children with
Religious beliefs, 344351
adaptations of Triple P for, 336t
adapting practice to family’s, 350
adapting support delivery to, 347348
benefits of, 345346
and culture, 308
and efficacy of Triple P interventions, 350
implementation issues related to family’s, 348350
influence of, on parenting beliefs/practices, 344347, 345b
Triple P adaptations for diverse, 348
Religious communities, 346
Research networks, enhancing innovation with, 525
Resendez, M., 138
Residential care centers, evidence-based staff training in, 179
Resilience Triple P, 82, 100102
evidence-based research on, 482
facilitative parenting with, 527
randomized controlled trial of, 11
Resistance, managing parent, 511, 515
Resources
in Stepping Stones Triple P, 449
in Triple P training model, 377
Respect, for parents, 505506
Responsiveness
contingent, 333
of program delivery, 73
Richerson, P. J., 333
Riley, A. W., 207
Risk management, in program development, 466468
Risley, R. T., 8, 64
Rituals, religious, 346
Robinson, P. A., 383, 384
Role play, 313, 327
Rose, G., 34
Rowling, J. K., 486


Sadhnani, V., 288
Safe and engaging environment
developmental effects of, 7
in positive parenting, 64
for young children, 67f
Safety, need for, 279
Salari, R. S., 175
Salk, Jonas, 499
Salmon, K., 522
Sampling frame, for population-level outcomes, 398399
Sanders, M. R., 1012, 16, 46, 48, 49, 50, 83, 88, 100, 113, 130, 160, 162, 172, 174176, 190193, 253255, 274, 287, 288, 299, 374, 467, 507, 517, 522, 527
Sandwich generation, 529
San Juan, R. R., 11
Santa Cruz, California, 426b
Satisfaction, family outcomes related to parental, 396, 397
Saudi Arabia, 348
Save the Children, 277
Scalability, of parenting programs, 357
Scaling up
of evidence-based programs, 366
fidelity of programs during, 371372
of interventions for dissemination, 464465
Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime (KIDDIE-SADS-PL), 113
Scheduling issues, 190
Schizophrenia, 207, 210211, 212b
Schoenwald, S. K., 410
School-aged children, Triple P for parents of, 490
Schooling
academic attainment and parental involvement in, 11
influence of parenting on, 1011
School records, measuring population-level outcomes from, 398
School systems, 252259
benefits of Triple P for, 253254
delivery of Triple P in, 255257, 256t
future research directions, 258
implementation issues in, 257258
and parents’ role in education, 252253
rationale for providing parenting support in, 254255
recruitment for obesity programs in, 164
School workforce, 255
Schoppe-Sullivan, S., 189
Schrank, B., 207
Schwartz, A., 232
Scott, S., 475
Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), 113
Screening interviews, with both parents, 191
Screen time, 158 (p. 562)
Selective mutism, 107
Self-absorbed behaviors, 443
Self-care
for parents of young children, 67f
in positive parenting, 6566
of practitioners working with Indigenous families, 326
Self-control
lifelong consequences of, 530
and parenting by father, 189
in Teen Triple P, 173
Self-determination, of goals/standards, 71, 72
Self-directed interventions, 301
Self-efficacy
and children with developmental disabilities, 123
as determinant of parenting practices, 16
parent outcomes in terms of, 396
parent report measures of, 399
of practitioners, 233, 377378, 407
in self-regulation, 41, 71
and video modeling, 286
Self-esteem, and chronic health conditions, 146
Self-evaluation, of performance, 71
Self-harm, 97
Self-help interventions, 9091
Self-management, in parental self-regulation, 41, 7172
Self-monitoring, 71, 397
Self-regulation
and childhood obesity, 158
and family diversity, 5354
impact of developing, 423
individual differences in, 507, 508b509b
in MAPP Triple P trial, 436
parenting and capacity for, 9
parent outcomes in terms of, 396
in PECE, 246
in positive parenting, 7072
and religious beliefs, 345
and self-efficacy, 16
in Triple P Online, 297
in Triple P system, 4041
Self-sufficiency, in parental self-regulation, 41, 71
Seminars, 36, 255, 256t. See also specific seminars
Senior management champions, 388
Sensitivity, caregiver, 333334
Separation, parents undergoing, 216222
parenting by, 2122
parenting interventions with, 218219
practice with, 221222
stress on children with, 216217
Triple P with, 219220, 221b, 490
See also Divorce
Separation anxiety disorder, 107
Serious mental health problems, children and adolescents with, 135142
effects of parenting for, 10
future research directions, 141
impact and significance of mental health problems, 135136
parenting and family factors in outcomes for, 137138
parenting interventions in families of, 138139
practice with, 141
Triple P for families of, 139140
Serious mental health problems, parents with, 206212
bipolar disorder, 209210
impact of mental health problems on family, 206207
and perinatal mental health, 208209
practice with, 211
prevalence of, 186
schizophrenia, 210211, 212b
Service delivery issues (childhood obesity), 164
Setting-specific self-efficacy, 16
Sexual abuse
prevalence of, 423
and serious mental health issues, 136
Sexual behaviors, in adolescence, 171
Shah, R., 232
Shame, 325
Shapiro, C. J., 255
Shared responsibilities
of caregivers, 185
in Triple P program, 528
Sherman, L. W., 467
Shonkoff, J. P., 8, 473
Shortt, A. L., 108
Sibling relationships
and anxiety, 108
influence of parenting on, 1112
and peer relationships, 99
Sick-role behaviors, 12
Singapore, 313
Single-room housing, adaptations of Triple P for, 336t
SIP (social information processing) model, 16
Skills-based interventions
to help with inclusion of grandparents, 200
teaching children skills, 68t69t
Skype, accreditation sessions via, 380
Slagt, M., 13 (p. 563)
Sleep, sufficient, 254
Sleep apnea, 157
Smartphones, 262
Smith, A. M., 112
Smith, Donna, 327b
Smith, G., 425
Smith, G. C., 198
Smith Magenis syndrome, 449t
Social anxiety disorder, 107
Social care, 6
Social cognitive theory, 40
Social competence, of children, 11
Social contagion effect, 505
Social costs
of anxiety, 108
of externalizing behavior disorders, 8586
Social difficulties, and chronic health conditions, 146
Social disparities, 492
for Indigenous families, 308
proportionate universalism to reduce, 48
Social exclusion, and childhood obesity, 157
Social factors, in parental capacity, 22
Social information-processing deficits, 86
Social information processing (SIP) model, 16
Social interactional model, 396
Socialization process, parental expectations in, 67
Social learning approach, 486
effectiveness of, 51
in PECE, 245
in positive parenting, 74
Social learning theory, 33, 138139, 395
Social marketing
definition of, 384
of parenting programs, 512
Social marketing strategies, 358, 383393
content strategies, 389390
and definition of social marketing, 384
with Disaster Recovery Triple P program, 279
and factors preventing uptake of EBPPs, 384385
future research directions, 392
and public’s view of parenting programs, 390392
in Stay Positive campaign, 385389
Social media, Triple P Online with, 299
Social performance, anxiety and, 108
Social phobia, 107
Social problems
for children and adolescents with developmental disabilities, 443
lifelong problems associated with, 434
and serious mental health issues, 136
Triple P system to decrease, 34
Social skills
and externalizing behavior disorders, 85
and peer relationship problems, 99100
Social support
chronic health conditions and lack of, 148
and parenting, 20
Social workers, 232
Society, effects of population-level approach on, 434
Socioeconomically disadvantaged families, Triple P system for, 492493
Socioeconomic status
and childhood obesity, 157
and serious mental health issues, 136
Sociopolitical factors
in parenting practices, 22
and well-being of Indigenous children, 321322
Solution-focused scientific agenda, 521527
Son, S.-H., 11
South Africa
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
efficacy of Triple P in, 339
Internet access in, 296
South America, 46
South East Asia, 46
Spanish-speaking parents, Triple P for, 490
Spanking, 137
Special needs, children with
parenting support for families with, 25
and religious beliefs, 347
Specific phobia, 107
SSTP: A Guide to Mealtimes, 129
SSTP: A Guide to Self-Care Skills, 129
SSTP: A Guide to Toileting, 129
STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory), 113
Stallman, H. M., 175, 176
Standard Stepping Stones Triple P, 4546
Standard Triple P, 88, 89b
effectiveness studies of, 52
intensity of, 36
and Triple P Online, 297
State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 113
Stay Positive (strategy), 358, 385389, 386f, 513t
Stay Positive Level1 intervention, 490
Stay Positive websites, 388
Stepped care approach, 301
Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP), 82, 124128, 126f, 128t, 177, 235 (p. 564)
with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, 522
development of, 51
evidence base for, 505
large-scale rollout of, 420
Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) (cont.)
large-scale study of, 445451
modules in, 447, 449
System Project, 420, 445451
techniques in, 70
Stigma
with Indigenous families, 325
of obesity, 159
and reach of program, 44
Stockton, L., 212b
Strain-based conflict, 264
Strang, H., 467
Strategies table (Stepping Stones Triple P), 449
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), 198, 278, 399, 439, 475
Stress
associated with parenting by grandparents, 186
associated with parents’ relationship breakdown, 186
and child maltreatment, 423
on children of divorced parents, 216217
and children with developmental disabilities, 123
and chronic health conditions, 145146
and emotional/behavior problems of children, 22
and executive functioning, 207
in families of children with developmental disabilities, 444
family outcomes related to, 396
father involvement and reduction of, 190
related to family dysfunction in childhood, 14
Triple P Online for reducing, 298, 299
Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, 189
Substance abuse, and externalizing behavior disorders, 85
Substance-/medication-induced anxiety disorder, 107
Sufficiency
in multilevel system of parenting support, 487
of positive parenting interventions, 73
Sufficient exemplars approach, 74
Supernanny (television show), 287, 288
Supervision
bullying and lack of, 100
improving fidelity with, 53, 358, 407, 410
for quality assurance, 407
for quality management, 358
in safe and engaging environment, 64
Supervision and posttraining support, 405413
acceptability and feasibility of PASS model, 411412
and delivery threats for EBPs, 406
efficacy of PASS model, 410411
future research directions, 412
and parenting support delivery strategies, 407409
with PASS model, 409410
Support, posttraining. See Supervision and posttraining support
Surveys
of abusive parenting practices, 424
of population-level outcomes, 398, 399
Sustainability, of interventions, 466, 511512
and implementation, 359, 361
and PASS model, 409
Sustainable development goals, 495, 496t497t
Sweden, 313
Switzerland, 313
Synapse formation, in brain, 8
Syndrome-specific services, 447
Systemic obstacles to innovation, 498
System of parenting support. See Parenting support system
Systems–contextual approach, 427, 487


Targeted interventions
limitations of, 475
population-based vs., 445
and universal interventions, 479
Targeted prevention, universal vs., 4445, 424
Target populations, for Triple P interventions, 37t38t
Tarrant, P., 177
Task shifting, 340
Task-specific self-efficacy, 16
Taxonomy of implementation, 360
Technical support, for Indigenous and non-Indigenous practitioners, 326327
Technology, advances in, 296, 301
Technology-assisted delivery of parenting programs, 294302
efficacy of, 297300
future of, 300301
rationale for, 294295
special challenges in, 296
Triple P variant for, 296297
Technology-assisted interventions, 294
Technology transfer arrangements, 488 (p. 565)
Technology transfer operation (TTO), 464
Teenagers
with behavioral difficulties, 176b
parental tasks and responsibilities with, 24t
See also Adolescents
Teen Triple P, 83
access to, 178
development of, 51
in families with adolescents with psychosocial problems, 172177
techniques in, 66, 67
variants of, 177178
Teen Triple P Online, 177
Telephone consultations and support
with fathers and mothers, 191
Triple P Online with, 299
Television
accessing parenting advice via, 230
behavior change promoted via, 285, 287288
childhood obesity and viewing of, 158
Tellegen, C. L., 48, 253
Temperament, child, 13, 15
Te Whānau Pou Toru (TWPT), 314, 315f, 316317, 316b
Theory of reasoned action model, 389
Thienemann, M., 112
Threat-based cognitive style, 110
THRIVE (Trial of Health Relationships Initiatives for the Very Early-years), 209
Time-based conflict, 264
Time constraints, 247248
Time frame, for population-level implementation of interventions, 428
Time-out
and Teen Triple P, 173
Tippaper (parent newspaper), 388389
Tip sheets, 36, 449
Tiredness, of Indigenous children, 323
Tobacco use, by adolescents, 171
Toddlers
parental tasks and responsibilities during, 24t
Triple P for parents of, 490
Tomkins, K., 112
Torres Strait Islanders, 313, 490
TPOL. See Triple P Online
TPTN (Triple P Trainers Network), 514t
Traditional culture, 323. See also Indigenous families
“Train-and-hope” approach, 439
Trainers, Triple P, 374375
Training and Accreditation phase (Triple P Implementation Framework), 365
Training for practitioners, 58, 357, 371381
assessment of, 378, 379
challenges with, 379380
for cultural adaptations of Triple P, 335
culturally accommodated, 324
in culture of innovation, 498499
and delivery of parenting support, 372373
development of, 488489
EBP delivery threats related to, 406
efficacy of, 377379
and fidelity of scaled up EBPs, 371372
future research directions, 380381
to implement population-level interventions, 428
Indigenous and non-Indigenous, 326327
in MAPP Triple P trial, 439
in parenting and family psychology, 519520
research on, 516
of Teen Triple P, 178
with Triple P training model, 374377
Training loosely, 74
Train the Trainer, 371372, 513t
Transtheoretical model, 389
Trauma, parenting in aftermath of, 21
Trauma-sensitive services, 54
Treatment domain (public health), 3
Treatment model, for parenting support, 487
Trial of Health Relationships Initiatives for the Very Early-years (THRIVE), 209
Triandis, H. C., 333
Trickey, D., 274
Trimbos Institute, 385
Triple P Capacity Calculator (CapCal), 513t
Triple P Discussion Groups, 12, 235236
Triple P Implementation Framework (TPIF), 50, 357, 513t
and factors preventing uptake of EBPPs, 384
for large-scale rollouts, 366367, 367f
PASS model in, 409
phases of, 362366, 362f
and quality assurance, 407
and Stay Positive strategy, 387
theoretical basis of, 521
Triple P International Proprietary Limited (TPI), 50, 70, 362, 374, 375, 377, 400, 451, 488, 489, 507, 518, 525
Triple P Online (TPOL), 9091, 177, 193, 210, 230
addressing adverse childhood experiences with, 54
development of, 51
efficacy of, 297299
feedback on, 300b
future of, 300, 301
implementation issues with, 296297 (p. 566)
inclusiveness of, 48
intensity of, 36
for parents with serious mental health problems, 18, 186
rationale for, 294295
Triple P Online Brief (TPOLB), 51, 297, 300, 301
Triple P Provider Network, 49, 451, 514t, 525
Triple P Provider Training Program (TPPT), 513t
Triple P Research Network, 514t, 525
Triple P Self-Help Workbook, 211
Triple P Seminars, 236
Triple P system
adaptations of, for diverse religious beliefs, 348, 350
assessing outcomes of, 399400
benefits of, in school systems, 253254
core parenting skills in, 66, 68t69t
cultural acceptability studies of, 21, 46
for culturally diverse families, 307
delivery of, 73, 228229
delivery of, after natural disasters, 279280
delivery of, in school systems, 255257, 256t
delivery of, in workplace setting, 265266
in different countries, 334339, 335b, 336t337t
dissemination of, 517518
distinguishing features of, 4551
with divorced parents, 219220, 221b
in early childhood education context, 244245
effectiveness of, 5152
efficacy of, in workplace setting, 266267
for families of children with anxiety problems, 112114, 114t
for families of children with chronic health conditions, 147149
for families of children with externalizing behavior problems, 8891
for families of children with peer relationship problems, 101
for families of children with serious mental health problems, 139140, 140b
feedback from parents and teachers on benefits of, 254b
generalization of, 81
goals of, 34
for grandparents, 200203
improving, 507
improving parental self-efficacy with, 16
with Indigenous families, 323326
innovation in, 487491
logic model of, 42, 43f
myths about, 75
other branded parenting systems vs., 517
partnership approach to implementing, 433439
as population-based approach to EBPS, 3442, 43f
positive effects on adolescents of, 172
and positive parenting principles, 63, 65
for prevention of child maltreatment, 424425, 426b
in primary health care settings, 232236
Teen Triple P vs., 172173
theoretical models informing, 3
Workplace, 267
See also specific variants, e.g.: Teen Triple P
Triple P system implementation, 357, 359368
factors in successful EBPS implementation, 360362
framework for, 50, 362366, 362f
future research directions, 368
and implementation science, 360
key considerations in preparing for, 363b
in large-scale rollouts, 366367, 367f
and PASS model, 409
Triple P Trainers Network (TPTN), 514t
Triple P training model, 371, 374377
Triple P Video Series, 287
Triple U Update conferences, 514t
TTO (technology transfer operation), 464
Turkey, 313
Turnover, employee, 265
Twins studies, 109
Type 1 diabetes, 148, 176
Type 2 diabetes, 157


UK Schizophrenia Commission, 210
UniQuest, 362, 375, 518
United Kingdom
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
cost of maternal mental health problems in, 208
culture of, 333
divorce in, 216
documentary-style coaching in, 287288
government support for EBPS programs in, 473
impacts of grandparents on grandchildren in, 198199
Muslim families in, 345, 348
parent blaming in, 391
preferred method of accessing parenting advice in, 230, 295
prevalence of children with intellectual disability in, 442
workplace setting support in, 264 (p. 567)
United Nations Children’s Fund, 474
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 22, 338
United Nations Development Program, 495, 496t497t
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 495
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 311, 332, 340, 474
United States
child care by grandparents in, 19, 197
child care centers in, 245
childhood obesity in, 158
children living in poverty in, 19
collaborative partnership adaptation model in, 313
Developmental Disability Act, 121
divorce in, 216
documentary-style coaching in, 287288
employment of parents in, 262
federally funded systems of care in, 428
government support for EBPS programs in, 473
preferred method of accessing parenting advice in, 230, 295
prevalence of child maltreatment in, 423
service users with mental illness in, 207
Triple P for parents in, 490
Triple P with Indigenous families in, 373
Universal parenting support, 458459
reach of, 481
targeted support and, 479
Universal prevention
in successful population approaches, 4445
targeted vs., 424
Universal principles, of parenting, 308, 333334
Universal Triple P
self-efficacy in, 71
social marketing strategies for rollouts of, 385, 387
Universities, scaling up interventions in, 464465
University of Queensland, 362, 375, 377, 462, 468, 488, 491, 518, 525
Unspecified anxiety disorder, 107
Uptake
factors preventing, 384385
and implementation of EBPS programs, 361
Using assertive discipline. See Assertive discipline, using
US National Health Interview Surveys, 443


Values
cultural influence on important, 334
and motivations, 383384
and religious beliefs, 346
role of, in positive parenting, 344351
Values orientation, 528
Van Aken, M. A. G., 13
Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., 509
Veazey, C. A., 480
Verbal abuse, 137
Victimization, 100
Victoria, Australia, 446
Video-based modeling, 246, 286288
Video conference, accreditation sessions via, 380
Video feedback, with mothers with severe mental health problems, 208
Video resources, refreshing, 507
Volmert, A., 476
Volunteers, parenting support from, 520521


Waldorf approach, 244
Wang, S. J., 9899
War zones, parenting programs in, 495
Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 57, 480
Waters, A. M., 112
Web-based interventions, 295
special challenges with, 296
Weekends, working on, 262
Welfare sector, practitioner training in, 489
Well-being (of children)
effect of parenting on, 12
as focus of parenting programs, 493
parenting and, 6
tracking indicators of, 50
Well-being (of parents)
and divorce, 217
family outcomes related to, 396
Well-child services, 232
Well-child visits, 232
West, F., 160, 162
Western Australia, 162, 253
Western countries
parenting intervention research in, 525
participation in parenting programs in, 506
Westmeath county, Ireland, 435439
Westrupp, E. M., 148
WFC (work-to-family conflict), 263264
Wharton, T. A., 112 (p. 568)
What Is Positive Child Care? (online module), 246
Whole-of-population–based approaches, 20
Wilder, S., 11, 252
Williams syndrome, 449t
Woolley, M. L., 16
Word of mouth marketing, 389
Workforce development, 237
Work-life balance difficulties, parents with, 490
Workplace assistance programs, 56
Workplace setting, 262268
and balancing work/family commitments, 263264, 263b
company offering full support in, 266
delivery of Triple P in, 265266
efficacy of Triple P in, 266267
future research directions, 267268
other settings for parenting support vs., 265
rationale for providing parenting support in, 264265
Workplace Triple P (WPTP), 267
Workshop Evaluation Survey (WES), 375, 377, 378, 379f
Workshops, for practitioners, 377
Work-to-family conflict (WFC), 263264
World Health Organization (WHO), 157, 308, 332, 340, 474
Worried well, targeting, 481
WPTP (Workplace Triple P), 267


Yosef, A. R. O., 348
Young adults
parental tasks and responsibilities with, 24t
parenting programs for parents of, 495
with psychosocial difficulties, 171179
Younger children
positive parenting techniques for use with, 66, 67t69t
Teen Triple P vs. Triple P for parents of, 172
Your Say Survey, 514t
Yu, T., 509