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(p. 533) Glossary 

(p. 533) Glossary

Matthew R. Sanders

and Trevor G. Mazzucchelli

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Subscriber: null; date: 19 February 2018

  • Creating a positive learning environment.

    Second principle of positive parenting: This involves educating parents in their role as their child’s first teacher. In particular, how to respond positively and constructively to child-initiated interactions in naturally occurring situations (e.g., requests for help, information, advice, attention).

  • Dissemination.

    The process of spreading evidence-based intervention knowledge and materials to practice settings.

  • EBP.

    The acronym for evidence-based program.

  • EBPS.

    The acronym for evidence-based parenting support.

  • Evidence-based parenting programs.

    Prevention or treatment interventions supported by a high level of empirical evidence documenting significant change of targeted parent or child outcome variables.

  • Evidence-based parenting support.

    The full breadth of empirically supported means of helping parents raise their children. These means of support include communication messaging as part of a social marketing campaign, the use of low- and higher intensity parenting interventions using the Internet, and group and individual face-to-face delivery of parenting interventions. See also System of parenting support.

  • Evidence-based program.

    An intervention that is supported by a high level of evidence of effectiveness. If implemented with adherence to the developer’s protocol, such a program is likely to produce positive outcomes.

  • Facilitative parenting.

    The combination of warm relating, enabling of child independence, coaching, support of friendships, and effective communication with the school to support children’s development of peer social skills and emotional regulation skills.

  • Flexibility vs. fidelity.

    This terminology is often used to refer to the important balance between flexible tailoring of program delivery while maintaining fidelity to core program content.

  • Flexible delivery.

    Several of the levels of intervention in Triple P can be delivered in a variety of formats, including individual face-to-face, group, telephone-assisted, or self-directed programs or a combination of modalities.

  • Flexible tailoring.

    Within each level of Triple P intervention, considerable tailoring of the program to parents’ particular circumstances is possible to enable specific risk and protective factors to be addressed.

  • Guided participation model of information transfer.

    This model is used to discuss assessment information with parents and to develop a shared understanding of the problem and possible contributing factors. The model involves providing descriptive, factual information and providing opportunities for parents to process and react to the practitioner’s inferences and reasoning. The sharing of this reasoning provides a model for parents to examine causal inferences they make about their child’s behavior.

  • (p. 534) Having a safe interesting environment.

    First principle of positive parenting: An environment that is full of interesting things to do stimulates children’s curiosity as well as their language and intellectual development. It also keeps children engaged and active and reduces the likelihood of misbehavior.

  • Having realistic expectations.

    Fourth principle of positive parenting: Holding reasonable expectations, assumptions and beliefs about the causes of children’s behavior, and goals that are developmentally appropriate for the child and realistic for the parent.

  • Implementation framework.

    A structure to guide the successful implementation of evidence-based parenting support in large-scale rollouts.

  • Levels of intervention.

    Refers to the five levels of Triple P interventions on a tiered continuum of increasing strength. Within each level, there is a choice of delivery methods. This provides flexibility to meet the needs of individual families and specific communities. It is designed to give parents as much help as they need—but not too much—to prevent overservicing and encourage self-sufficiency.

  • Media and communication strategy.

    A coordinated information strategy using print and electronic media and other health promotion strategies to promote awareness of parenting issues and normalize participation in parenting programs such as Triple P. Includes social marketing to increase program awareness.

  • Minimally sufficient.

    The least amount of intervention required to achieve a meaningful outcome.

  • Multilevel system.

    Refers to the suite of Triple P programs of increasing intensity, each catering to a different level of family need or dysfunction. This allows organizations or governments to implement a true population rollout or simply select the specific Triple P interventions that will meet its community’s or clients’ needs, as well as its own service priorities and funding. The system ranges from “light-touch” parenting help to highly targeted intensive interventions.

  • Outreach.

    Media outreach includes use of local radio and community radio; community advertisements on TV; and advertisements and features in community newspapers.

  • PASS.

    The acronym for peer-assisted supervision and support.

  • Peer-assisted supervision and support.

    A structured system of peer supervision and support usually organized to follow practitioner accreditation to promote fidelity of program delivery by practitioners.

  • Personal agency.

    With personal agency, the parents increasingly attribute changes or improvements in their situation to their own or their child’s efforts rather than to chance, age, maturational factors, or other uncontrollable events (e.g., genetic makeup). This outcome is achieved by prompting parents to identify causes or explanations for their child’s or their own behavior.

  • Planned activities routine.

    A planned activities routine is a parenting plan developed through planned activities training. The steps include choosing a high-risk situation, planning and preparing ahead, deciding on rules, choosing interesting activities for the high-risk situation, listing rewards for good behavior and consequences for misbehavior, and having a follow-up discussion to review how the routine went and set goals for next time.

  • Planned activities training.

    Planned activities training is a strategy for promoting the generalization of parents’ skills. It involves training with sufficient examples to promote a parent’s ability to spontaneously generalize his or her positive parenting strategies to new situations, different problems, and children other than the target child. The main aim of planned activities training is to prevent problems from occurring in high-risk situations.

  • Planning ahead routine.

    This is a framework that parents of teenagers are prompted to use when discussing teen requests to participate in activities that parents consider risky. The main aim of planning ahead is to teach teenagers to recognize risky situations, to anticipate likely problems, and to develop coping plans to reduce or eliminate these risks. It is therefore a preventive approach to risky situations.

  • (p. 535) Planning ahead routine for dealing with risky behavior.

    Steps parents are encouraged to follow when discussing with a teenager a plan to allow them to participate in an event with a relative high level of safety and enjoyment.

  • Population-based approach.

    An approach to parenting support that emphasizes the need to target parents at a whole-of-population level to achieve meaningful change in population-level indices of parent and child outcomes.

  • Population-level change.

    The associated changes in parenting practice and child behavior and emotion resulting from the adoption and implementation of a public health approach to parenting support.

  • Positive learning environment.

    One of the principles of positive parenting. It involves parents being available when their child needs help, care, or attention. It also involves helping a child to learn by encouraging them to try things for themselves.

  • Positive Parenting Program.

    The system of intervention programs known as “Triple P.”

  • Practitioner.

    The professional delivering the program.

  • Prevention effects.

    A prevention effect is distinguished from a treatment or intervention effect. It refers to a situation where an intervention forestalled or reduced the likelihood of a problem developing in a population who did not already have the problem, but who may be at risk of developing the problem.

  • Principles of positive parenting.

    There are five key aspects to positive parenting: (a) having a safe, engaging environment; (b) creating a positive learning environment; (c) using assertive discipline; (d) having realistic expectations; and (e) taking care of yourself as a parent.

  • Problem-solving.

    Problem-solving involves six main steps: (a) define the problem; (b) generate alternative solutions (or brainstorm); (c) evaluate alternatives; (d) develop a solution; (e) put the plan into action; and (f) review and revise the plan.

  • Program sufficiency.

    This concept refers to the notion that parents differ according to the strength of intervention they may require to enable them to independently manage a problem. Triple P aims to provide the minimally sufficient level of support parents require.

  • Reach of an intervention.

    An intervention’s reach refers to its coverage in a target population or the extent of access or exposure to the intervention across the population. For example, a universal or population-level intervention has the greatest reach. Many factors may have an impact on an intervention’s reach, such as community engagement, media exposure, and access to resources and services.

  • Resilience.

    Resilience refers to the ability to deal well with adverse life events.

  • Resistance.

    Resistance can be shown by parents in response to a process of change. Research has identified multiple sources of resistance contributing to parental perceptions of defeat and avoidance of treatment. These factors include parents’ history of defeat, emotions, psychopathology, and social disadvantage.

  • Risky situations.

    Situations that have the potential to result in harm to a teenager’s health or well-being if they are not recognized and appropriately responded to.

  • Role play.

    This refers to active behavioral rehearsal or practice of a skill in a simulated scenario (e.g., a practitioner models a strategy with a parent playing the role of child, and then the parent practices the strategy with the practitioner or another parent playing the role of the child). This provides an opportunity for self-evaluation and constructive feedback and future goal setting for skill development.

  • Self-efficacy.

    Self-efficacy refers to a parent’s belief that he or she can overcome or solve a parenting or child management problem.

  • Self-management.

    Each parent is considered to be responsible for the way he or she chooses to raise his or her children, so parents select those aspects of their own and their child’s behavior they wish (p. 536) to work on, set goals, choose specific parenting and child management techniques they wish to implement, and self-evaluate their success with their chosen goals against self-determined criteria.

  • Self-regulation.

    Self-regulation is a process whereby individuals are taught skills to modify their own behavior. Clinically, it involves helping parents develop problem ownership and personal responsibility for decision-making. The aim is to enable them to become independent, confident problem-solvers and continue to monitor their own progress and develop their skills.

  • Self-sufficiency.

    Self-sufficiency involves parents becoming independent problem-solvers so that they trust their own judgment and become less reliant on others in carrying out basic parenting responsibilities.

  • Seminar.

    A presentation to a group that is more didactic than an interactive discussion group or a group involving active skill rehearsal (i.e., information is presented by a facilitator and questions from the audience are answered at the end of the presentation).

  • Stay Positive.

    A media communication strategy aimed at engaging parents in positive parenting strategies in a nonstigmatized way.

  • System of parenting support.

    An organized set of interdependent and theoretically consistent intervention programs designed collectively to create a family-friendly environment that better supports parents in the task of raising their children. Programs that are part of the system may differ in intensity, mode of delivery, intervention target, and target population.

  • Taking care of oneself as a parent.

    Fifth principle of positive parenting: Viewing parenting within a broader context of personal self-care, resourcefulness and well-being.

  • Tip sheets.

    Individual two- to four-page parenting tip sheets that provide suggestions for preventing and managing common developmental issues and behavior difficulties. Tip sheets are available in series specifically written for common issues relating to parenting, infants, toddlers, preschoolers, primary schoolers, and teenagers.

  • Triple P system.

    A system of parenting support comprising Triple P interventions. See System of parenting support.

  • Using assertive discipline.

    Third principle of positive parenting: Specific child management strategies are presented as alternatives to coercive and ineffective discipline practices (such as shouting, threatening, or using physical punishment). When parents use assertive discipline, children learn to accept responsibility for their behavior, to become aware of the needs of others, and to develop self-control.