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(p. 123) Positive Psychotherapy Inventory 

(p. 123) Positive Psychotherapy Inventory

Tayyab Rashid

and Martin Seligman

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date: 16 January 2019

The Positive Psychotherapy Inventory (PPTI) is the primary measure to assess client well-being based on the PERMA theory of well-being. The PPTI assesses well-being in terms of positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. It has been used in several published outcome studies (e.g., Schrank et al., 2014; Seligman, Rashid, & Parks, 2006; Uliaszek, Rashid, Williams, & Gulamani, 2016; Rashid et al., 2017), and it has been translated into Turkish (Guney, 2011), Persian (Khanjani, Shahidi, FathAbadi, Mazaheri, & Shokri, 2014), and German (Wammerl, Jaunig, Maierunteregger, & Streit, 2015). For psychometric properties of the PPTI, see Rashid and Seligman (2018, in the Clinician’s Manual).

Positive Psychotherapy Inventory

(p. 124) Scoring Instructions


Scoring—Add Items:

Definition of PERMA Elements

Positive Emotions

1 + 6 + 11 + 16 + 21

Experiencing positive emotions such as contentment, pride, serenity, hope, optimism, trust, confidence, gratitude


2 + 7 + 12 + 17 + 22

Immersing oneself deeply in activities that utilize one’s strengths to experience an optimal state marked by razor sharp concentration, optimal state of experience with intense focus, and intrinsic motivation to further develop


3 + 8 + 13 + 18 + 23

Having positive, secure, and trusting relationships


4 + 9 + 14 + 19 + 24

Belonging to and serving something with a sense of purpose and belief that is larger than the self



Pursuing success, mastery, and achievement for its own sake


Schrank, B., Riches, S., Coggins, T., Rashid, T., Tylee, A., & Slade, M. (2014). WELLFOCUS PPT–modified positive psychotherapy to improve well-being in psychosis: Study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial. Trials, 15(1), 203.Find this resource:

Seligman, M. E., Rashid, T., & Parks, A. C. (2006). Positive psychotherapy. American Psychologist. 61(8), 774–788. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.8.774Find this resource:

Rashid, T., Louden, R., Wright, L., Chu, R., Lutchmie-Maharaj A., Hakim, I., . . . Kidd, B. (2017). Flourish: A strengths-based approach to building student resilience. In C. Proctor (Ed.), Positive Psychology Interventions in Practice (pp. 29–45). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Find this resource:

Uliaszek, A. A., Rashid, T., Williams, G. E., & Gulamani, T. (2016). Group therapy for university students: A randomized control trial of dialectical behavior therapy and positive psychotherapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 77, 78–85. doi: this resource:



Guney, S. (2011). The Positive Psychotherapy Inventory (PPTI): Reliability and validity study in Turkish population. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 81–86.Find this resource:


Khanjani, M., Shahidi, S., FathAbadi, J., Mazaheri, M. A., & Shokri, O. (2014). The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Positive Psychotherapy Inventory (PPTI) in an Iranian sample. Iranian Journal of Applied Psychology, 7(5), 26–47.Find this resource:


Wammerl, M., Jaunig, J., Maierunteregger, T., & Streit, P. (2015, June). The Development of a German Version of the Positive Psychotherapy Inventory Überschrift (PPTI) and the PERMA-Profiler. Presentation at the World Congress of International Positive Psychology Association, Orlando, FL. (p. 126) Find this resource: