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(p. 860) Index 

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date: 23 September 2018

Page numbers followed by b, f, and t indicate boxes, figures, and tables, respectively. (p. 861)

Abstinence versus harm-minimization prevention programs, 581582
Abuse
child
depression and, 25, 34
mania and, 35
neuroendocrine changes, 41
suicidal behavior and, 490491
physical, suicidal behavior and, 490491
sexual. SeeSexual abuse
Acamprosate for alcohol use disorders, 446
Accountable care organizations (ACOs), 609
Acculturation, eating disorders and, 350
Acute stress disorder, 270
Acute versus chronic care, 621, 629
ADAPT (Antidepressant and Psychotherapy trial), 5152
Adolescence. See alsoChildren
biological features, 203205
brain development during, 109110, 110f, 203204
definition, 100
hormonal changes, 119
mental health problems during. See Mental health disorders; specific disorders
substance use during. SeeSubstance use; Substance use disorders
Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, 378, 636
Adolescent Suicide Awareness Program (ASAP), 504
Adrenal hormones and adolescent behavior, 119
Adventure programs, 561b
Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, 75
Affective disorders. SeeMood disorders
Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), xxiiixxiv, 608610, 617, 620621, 634
African Americans
depression, 2829, 53, 75, 82
eating disorders, 351
gambling, 576577
suicide rate, 485
After-school programs for positive youth development, 556, 559, 560561b
Aggressive behavior, 489. See also Violence, exposure to
Agoraphobia, 192, 195196
Alaskan Natives, suicide rate of, 485
Alcohol dehydrogenase, 385
Alcohol use and abuse
adolescents and, 411413
age of purchase, 469470
alcohol dependence as adult, 428
anxiety and, 261
binge drinking, 409411, 417f
clinical aspects of, 406416, 408t, 409410f
cocaine and, 400
in college setting, 416, 488489
consequences of, 411
cultural and societal factors in, 413
detoxification from, 446447
general description of, 406407
genetics and, 385
Internet addiction and, 589
prevalence of, xxii, 408409, 409410f
problematic, 407408, 408t
risk and protective factors for, 413415
screening for, 624
suicidal behavior and, 488489
withdrawal from, 407, 408t
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs)
comorbidities, 414415
etiology of, 413415
issues in determining, 412413
pharmacotherapy for, 450451
prevalence of, 411413
Allostasis, 376
Alprazolam for panic disorder, 247
Amazing Chateau gambling prevention program, 583t
Amenorrhea in anorexia nervosa, 308
American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, 499
American Indians. SeeNative Americans
(p. 862) American Society for Addiction Medicine (ASAM), 626
Amphetamine abuse. See alsoStimulant abuse
in adolescence, 397400
schizophrenia and, 101
Amygdala
activating factors, 205206
in anxiety disorders, 216217
developmental changes, 204
extended, in drug addiction, 375
Angel Dust, 425426
Animal models of substance use disorders, 373376, 374f
Anorexia nervosa. See alsoEating disorders
binge eating/purging subtype, 291, 292b
combination therapy for, 324325
comorbidities, 302303, 340, 365
cross-cultural studies, 349350
diagnostic criteria for, 291, 292b, 364
diagnostic migration, 304, 365
DSM-V criteria, 291, 292b
epidemiology, 301, 306t, 365
etiology, 290291
inpatient treatment, 326
medical complications, 305, 307309, 365
osteoporosis in, 308309, 310312
outcome, 303304, 365
outpatient treatment, 326
pharmacotherapy for, 321322, 330
prevalence of, 296297, 306t
prevention programs, 353361
combined, 358359
family based, 359
in high-risk populations and settings, 359361
research agenda, 367
targeted, 356358
theoretical models, 353
universal, 354356
psychosocial therapy, 316320
evaluation, 319320
randomized controlled trials, 316319
relapse prevention, 326327
refeeding in, 310
relapse prevention, 325328, 330, 366
restricting subtype, 291, 292b
risk factors for, 336342
behavioral/environmental, 339342
biological, 336339
eating and weight-related, 339340
genetic, 336337
weight restoration, 312, 322
Antepartum depression, 4748
Anticonvulsants, schizophrenia and, 150
Antidepressant and Psychotherapy trial (ADAPT), 5152
Antidepressants. See also specific drugs
for anorexia nervosa, 321
for binge-eating disorder, 323
for bulimia nervosa, 322323, 325, 331
for generalized anxiety disorder, 225
heterocyclic, for major depressive disorder, 57
for major depressive disorder
in adults, 5657
in children and adolescents, 5961
combination and augmentation therapy, 5758
prevention of relapse and recurrence, 58
for panic disorder, 230
in schizophrenia, 150
selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, for major depressive disorder, 56
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. SeeSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
suicidal ideation and, 5960, 526530
tricyclic
for bulimia nervosa, 322
for generalized anxiety disorder, 224, 225
for major depressive disorder in adults, 57
side effects of, 324
Antipsychotics. See also specific drugs
atypical
for anorexia nervosa, 321322
for bipolar disorder, with mood stabilizers, 6566
for schizophrenia, 115, 156
for treatment-resistant depression, 527528
for bipolar disorder, 455
for major depressive disorder, 58, 61
for schizophrenia
acute treatment, 144, 145, 145148t, 149
adjuncts to, 150
maintenance treatment, 151, 152154t, 155
side effects of, 145, 149
Anxiety disorders
age differences, 196197
autonomic nervous system abnormalities, 206, 254255
biological correlates, 206211
biological features, 203205
brain developmental changes, 203205
brain imaging, 207208
cognitive-behavioral therapy, 215216
developmental considerations, 216
education and skill-building, 215
exposure exercises, 215216
(p. 863)
history and rationale, 214216
maintenance of gains, 242243
mechanisms, 201
with pharmacotherapy, 218219
research agenda, 283284
cognitive factors, 200203, 255256
community factors, 260261
comorbidities, 197198, 197t
alcohol use disorders, 415
binge-eating disorder, 348
bipolar disorder, 3738
depression, 9, 52, 53, 198
eating disorders, 302, 303, 340, 345
Internet addiction, 589
substance use disorder, 456457
criminal behavior and, 261262
defining, 190211, 282
descriptions, 192, 195196
disability requirement, 196
electroencephalography, 208209
emotional processing theory, 200
environmental factors, 256564
etiology and maintenance theories, 199201
exposure therapy, mechanisms, 199201
family factors, 256260
fear structures
cognitive-behavioral therapy and, 214
emotional processing theory and, 200
gambling behavior and, 577
gang affiliation and, 261262
gender differences in, 196197
generalized
in children and adolescents, 224226
comorbidity, 197198, 197t
description, 195
genetics, 209211, 209t
signs and symptoms, 194t
treatment
acute, 219t
in adults, 223224
in children and adolescents, 224226
maintenance of gains, 243244
management of partial response and nonresponse to, 246
genetics, 209211, 209t, 256
HPA axis in, 206207
immunology, 207
Internet addiction for coping with, 588589
learning theories for, 199201
neurobiology, 205211, 216218
neurochemistry, 207
neuroticism and, 19
obsessive-compulsive disorder as. SeeObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
onset and course of, 199
panic disorder as. SeePanic disorder
peer factors and, 260261
pharmacotherapy
with cognitive-behavioral therapy, 218219
rationale, 216218
research agenda, 283284
post-traumatic stress disorder as. SeePost-traumatic stress disorder
prevalence of, 196197
prevention of, 252280
early detection and screening, 264269
issues in, 275280
outcome evaluation, 274275
research agenda, 285286
risk factors and protective factors, 253264, 265t
theoretical and conceptual models, 252253
prevention programs for, 269275
indicated, 270272
model programs, 269
selective, 272273
universal, 273274
rating scales for, 264269
relapse prevention, 245246
research agenda, 282286
risk factors for, 253264, 265t
school factors and, 260261
signs and symptoms of, 194195t
smoking and, 260261
social support and, 263264
substance abuse and, 198, 261
subsyndromal anxiety symptoms versus, 190192, 253254
suicidal behavior and, 489
threat bias in
attentional, 201202
interpretative, 202203
trauma exposure, adolescence and, 262263
treatment, xxii, 214249
acute treatment strategies, 219242, 219t
maintenance of gains, 243246
management of partial response and nonresponse to, 246
research agenda, 283284
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children, 269
Anxiety sensitivity, 201
Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST), 501502
(p. 864) Aripiprazole
for anorexia nervosa, 322
for bipolar disorder, 64t, 65, 67, 455
for conduct disorder with substance use disorder, 456
for major depressive disorder, 58
Arnarson and Craighead program for prevention of depression, 7980
ASAM .5 Level of Care, 626
Asian Americans
depression, 2829
eating disorders, 351
gambling, 576577
substance use disorders, 385
suicide rate, 485
Association studies in schizophrenia, 126128
Asthma, depression and, 17
Atomoxetine for ADHD with substance use disorder, 454
At-Risk program, 502
Attachment
as outcome of positive youth development, 549
security in, depression and, 25
styles, anxiety disorders and, 256258
Attachment-based family therapy
for major depressive disorder, 53
for suicidal behavior, 523524
Attentional threat bias in anxiety disorders, 201202
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbidities
alcohol use disorder, 414
bipolar disorder, 29, 3537
depression, 9, 52
Internet addiction, 589
substance use disorder, 453454
Attention deficit in children of schizophrenic parents, 170171, 172
Attributional style, pessimistic
suicidal behavior and, 489
and vulnerability to depression, 2021
Attributions, stigma and, 602
Australia
depression prevention programs, 7879
national youth development policy of, 636
Autism Centers of Excellence, 617
Autistic spectrum disorders, suicidal behavior and, 489
Automobile accidents, alcohol-related, 411
Autonomic nervous system abnormalities, anxiety disorders and, 206, 254255
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, 295


Baclofen for bulimia nervosa, 323
Ballet dancers, anorexia nervosa in, 341, 359
Beardslee program for prevention of depression, 8083
A Beautiful Mind (film), 605
Behavioral addictions. SeeGambling; Internet addiction
Behavioral inhibition
and anxiety disorders, 255
and depression, 1819
selective prevention intervention for, 272
Behavioral problems, premorbid, in schizophrenia, 162164, 168, 169t, 170, 173174, 175176
Behavioral therapy. See alsoCognitive-behavioral therapy
dialectical, for suicidal behavior, 522523
for major depressive disorder, 47
for selective mutism, 219t, 222223
for separation anxiety disorder, 226
for substance use disorders, 436437
for suicidal behavior, 521522
Benzodiazepines
for generalized anxiety disorder, 224
for panic disorder, 230, 247
for phobia, 228
for schizophrenia, 148t, 150
for separation anxiety disorder, 227
Benztropine for schizophrenia, 147t
“Beyondblue” extensive universal program, 7879
Big Brothers and Big Sisters, 558b
Binge drinking, 409411, 417f
Binge eating
in adolescents, 301302
in anorexia nervosa, 291, 292b
in bulimia nervosa, 292, 343
Binge-eating disorder
comorbidities, 303, 348
diagnostic criteria for, 293294, 294b, 364
DSM-V criteria, 293294, 294b
epidemiology, 365
etiology, 290291
pharmacotherapy for, 323, 331
prevalence of, 300
prevention programs for, 353361
combined, 358359
in high-risk populations and settings, 359361
research agenda, 367
targeted, 356358
theoretical models, 353
universal, 354356
psychosocial therapy for, 320321, 328329
relapse prevention, 328330, 366
risk factors for, 346348, 366367
(p. 865) Bio-ecological approach to youth development, 546
Biological factors. See alsoNeurobiology
in anorexia nervosa, 342344
in anxiety disorders, 203205
in binge-eating disorder, 346348
in suicidal behavior, 489490
Bipolar disorder
age of onset, 6, 29
anxiety disorders, 3738
brain abnormalities, 42
classic (type I), 29
community attitudes toward, 601
comorbidities, 3539, 455
conduct disorder, 37
defined, 30
diagnosis, xxii, 3031
epidemiology, 3234, 9496
family history and, 3435
genetics and, 3435, 4041
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, 4041
mania in, 3031
pharmacotherapy
in adolescents, 6367, 64t
combination therapy, 6667
maintenance therapy, 67
prevention programs for, 86
prevention research agenda, 9596
psychosocial therapy, 6263
rates of, 3234, 3334t
research agenda, 9496
risk factors for, 3435
substance abuse and, 3839, 455
suicidal behavior and, 488
treatment research agenda, 95
Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS), 36
Birth cohort studies in schizophrenia, 166, 172
Blood alcohol level (BAL), 407408
Blood phobia, 192
Body dissatisfaction
anorexia nervosa and, 340
bulimia nervosa and, 345
Body fat, fear of, as criterion for anorexia nervosa, 291
Body mass index
anorexia nervosa and, 338
binge-eating disorder, 347
bulimia nervosa and, 343
Bonding, in positive youth development, 549
Bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa, 311
Borderline personality disorder, plus suicidal behavior, dialectical behavioral therapy for, 522
Botvin’s life skills training program, 473
Brain. See also Neurobiology; specific parts of brain
abnormalities
in anxiety disorders, 216217
in children of schizophrenic parents, 177
in mood disorders, 4244
violence exposure and, 75
circuitry
developmental shifts, 203205
in schizophrenia, 121123
development
during adolescence, 109110, 110f, 203205
myelinization, 109111, 110f
research study on, 636
synaptic pruning, 109110, 110f, 203
executive inhibitory circuitry defects, in substance use disorders, 377
imaging
advances in, xxixxii
in anxiety disorders, 207208
in mood disorders, 4244
in schizophrenia, 109112
in substance use disorders, 379382
reward center dysregulation, 376
allostasis and, 376
in animal models, 373376, 374f
imaging studies, 379382
pharmacotherapy for, 446
volume
developmental changes, 109110, 110f, 204
in schizophrenia, 109112
Brexpiprazole for major depressive disorder, 58
Brief dynamic therapy for major depressive disorder, 48
Brief strategic family therapy for substance use disorders, 435436
Bulimia nervosa. See alsoEating disorders
combination therapy for, 324325
comorbidities, 303, 365
cross-cultural studies on, 349
diagnostic criteria for, 291293, 293b, 364
diagnostic migration, 304
DSM-V criteria, 291293, 293b
epidemiology, 301, 306t, 365
etiology, 290291
internet-based relapse prevention, 329330
medical complications, 309310, 365
outcome, 304, 365
pharmacotherapy for, 322323, 330331
prevalence of, 297, 300, 306t
prevention programs for, 353361 (p. 866)
combined, 358359
in high-risk populations and settings, 359361
research agenda, 367
targeted, 356358
theoretical models, 353
universal, 354356
psychosocial therapy for, 320321, 328329
relapse prevention, 328329, 330331, 366
risk factors for, 342346, 366367
Bullying
binge-eating disorder and, 348
suicidal behavior and, 491492
Buprenorphine for opioid addiction, 446447, 451
Bupropion
for ADHD plus substance use disorder, 454
for major depressive disorder, 57, 6061
for smoking cessation, 446, 449
Buspirone for generalized anxiety disorder, 225


Calcium supplementation in anorexia nervosa, 311
Caloric requirements, 290
Cancer, 17
Cannabis. SeeMarijuana use
Carbamazepine for bipolar disorder in adolescents, 65, 67
Cardiovascular system
in anxiety disorders, 206, 254255
in depression, 58
in eating disorders, 306t
Caring, positive youth development and, 550
Caring for Children in the Community Study, 13
Caring for Children Study, 5t
Caring School Community, 558b
Case identification
in mental health disorders, 7172, 86
in substance use disorders, 622
CASEL (2003), 560b
CASI (Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index), 201, 267
CAST (Coping and Support Training), 516
Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) as schizophrenia susceptibility gene, 128, 129
CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist), 269
C-CARE (Counselors Care), 516517
CCI (Comprehensive College Initiative), 499
CEEBIT (Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technology), 612
Center for Prevention Research, 71
Centers of Excellence, 609, 617
Cerebellum, developmental changes in, 204205
Character, positive youth development and, 550
Character strengths, 553555, 567
Chemical dependency. SeeSubstance use disorders
Chemical transmission in anxiety disorders, 217
Child abuse
depression and, 25, 34
mania and, 35
neuroendocrine changes, 41
suicidal behavior and, 490491
Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS), 267268
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 269
Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI), 201, 267
Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), 267268
Children. See alsoParent-child interaction
abuse of. See Child abuse
bipolar disorder in, 3031, 63
generalized anxiety disorder in, 224226
major depressive disorder in
versus adolescent-onset, 4, 6, 7
antidepressants for, 5961
psychosocial therapy, 5061
obsessive-compulsive disorder in, 232238
panic disorder in, 230231
phobia in, 228229
post-traumatic stress disorder in, 238242
at risk for schizophrenia, longitudinal studies, 165166, 168, 170172, 177178
schizophrenia in, event-related potentials in, 115119, 117t
social anxiety disorder in, 220221
Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA), 608609
Chlorpromazine for schizophrenia, 148t, 152t
CHRNA7 as schizophrenia susceptibility gene, 128, 129
Chronic versus acute care, 621, 629
Cigarette smoking. SeeSmoking
Citalopram for major depressive disorder, 56, 59, 455
Clarke program for prevention of depression, 8384
Classical conditioning
in anxiety disorders, 199200
in substance use disorders, 376
Clean Break gambling prevention program, 583t
Clomipramine
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 232, 235
for separation anxiety disorders, 227
Clonazepam
for panic disorder, 247
for schizophrenia, 147t
(p. 867) Clozapine
for bipolar disorder, 66
for psychotic disorder and suicidal behavior, 150
for schizophrenia, 146148t, 150, 153t
for suicide attempters, 528
Club drugs, 426
CNV in schizophrenia, 116
Cocaine use
alcohol and, 400
clinical aspects of, 397400, 400t
evolution of, 388389
treatment, 451
Cognitive-behavioral therapy
for anorexia nervosa, 327
for anxiety disorders
developmental considerations, 216
education and skill-building, 215
exposure exercises, 215216
history and rationale, 214216
maintenance of gains, 242243
mechanisms, 201
with pharmacotherapy, 218219
research agenda, 283284
for binge-eating disorder, 328329
for bipolar disorder, 62
for bulimia nervosa, 320321, 328
delivery, advances in, 614615
for eating disorders, 320321, 360
for generalized anxiety disorder, 219t, 223, 224225
for Internet addiction, 594595
for major depressive disorder
in adults, 4647, 49
in children and adolescents, 5054
in Latino youth, 52
prevention programs, 5354, 7780, 8386
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 219t, 231232, 233235, 248
for panic disorder, 219t, 229231, 270271
for phobia, 219t, 228229
for positive youth development, 554
for post-traumatic stress disorder, 219t, 238, 239242, 270, 278
for schizophrenia, 136137, 149150
for separation anxiety disorder, 219t, 226227
for social anxiety disorder, 219220, 219t
for substance use disorders, 437438, 627
for suicidal adults, 521522
for suicidal youth, 5355, 522
Cognitive diathesis-stress model of depression, 2022
Cognitive factors in anxiety disorders, 200201, 255256
Cognitive impairment
in marijuana use, 401
in schizophrenia, 108109, 164, 164t, 170172, 171f, 173, 175
Cognitive remediation therapy for schizophrenia, 137138
CollegeResponse program, 499
Colleges
drinking issues, 416, 488489
suicide prevention programs in, 499, 525526
Columbia TeenScreen Program (CTSP), 498499
Combined drug and psychosocial treatments
anxiety disorders, 218219
eating disorders, 324325
major depressive disorder, 5758
Communities That Care (CTC), 558b, 612
Community
attitudes toward mental illness, 601
depression prevention interventions in, 56, 88
positive youth development programs, 558b, 559, 559b
therapeutic, for substance use disorders, 429
Community environmental interventions for substance abuse prevention, 470
Community factors in anxiety disorders, 260261
Community Partners in Care, 612
Comorbidity issues in substance use disorders, 429, 442443, 452458
Competence, positive youth development and, 549550
Competencies as outcome of positive youth development, 554555
Compliance therapy for schizophrenia, 141
Comprehensive College Initiative (CCI), 499
Compulsive disorders in drug addiction, 373, 374f
Conditioning, classical
in anxiety disorders, 199200
in substance use disorders, 376
Conduct disorder, comorbidities
alcohol use disorders, 414
anxiety, 198
bipolar disorder, 37
substance use disorders, 456
suicidal behavior, 488
Confidence, positive youth development and, 550551
Confidentiality
in drug screening programs, 622, 630631
online treatment of mental disorders, 615
in suicide screening programs, 499
Connection, positive youth development and, 549
Consent for services, minor, 630631
(p. 868) Consumer Guide to Adolescent Treatment, 628629
Contact effects in reducing stigma of mental illness, 603604
Contagion
anxiety disorders and, 277
suicidal behavior and, 492493, 509510
Contingency management incentive systems for substance use disorders, 437
Contingent negative variation (CNV) in schizophrenia, 116, 117t
Continuing care for substance use disorders, 629630
Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technology (CEEBIT), 612
Contribution, positive youth development and, 551
Control, perceived, in anxiety disorders, 256
Coping and Support Training (CAST), 516
Coping skills strategies in anxiety disorders, 255256
Coping With Depression for Adolescents (CWD-A) intervention, 5253
Corticostriatal circuitry in schizophrenia, 122123
Corticotropin-releasing factor
in stress response, 4041
in substance use disorder, 375
Cortisol
and dopamine activity, 120
in schizophrenia, 119120
Counseling
firearms, 510512
genetic, in schizophrenia, 130131
Counselors Care (C-CARE), 516517
Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth (COBY), 30, 3839
CPSS (Child PTSD Symptom Scale), 267268
Crack cocaine, 388389. See alsoCocaine use
Cravings in drug addiction, 374
Credentialing process, substance abuse treatment and, 628
Criminal behavior. See alsoGambling; Juvenile justice system
anxiety disorders, 261262
suicidal behavior, 492, 512513
Cross-cultural studies, 349351
Cross-National Collaborative Group study, 32
CTSP (Columbia TeenScreen Program), 498499
Cultural factors. See alsoRace/ethnicity
in alcohol use disorders, 412413
in depression, 7576
in eating disorders, 290, 348353
clinical practice and, 353
cross-cultural studies, 349351
ethnicity and, 351352
social barriers and, 352353
in gambling, 573, 576577
in positive youth development, 548
CWD-A intervention, 5253
Cyclothymic disorder, 86


DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), 466467
D-cycloserine (DCS), 217
Delay discounting in substance use disorder, 382
Dependence disorders, chemical. SeeSubstance use disorders
Depression
antepartum, 4748
with atypical features, 9
bereavement exclusion, 1011
brain abnormalities associated with, 4244, 75
chronic, 6
cognitive diathesis-stress model, 2122
comorbidities
ADHD, 52
anxiety disorders, 9, 52, 53, 198
Internet addiction, 589590
substance use disorder, 10, 52, 455456
gambling behavior and, 577
genetics and, 3940
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, 4041
Internet addiction for coping with, 588589
interpersonal vulnerability and, 2528
major
age of onset, 4, 6
cognitive vulnerability to, 2122
combination therapy for, 5758
community attitudes toward, 601
comorbidities, 17
alcohol use disorders, 414
binge-eating disorder, 348
dysthymia, 7
eating disorders, 302, 303, 340, 345
impact on treatment outcome, 52
diagnosis of, 811
dysthymic disorder versus, 910
epidemiology, 1117, 11t, 1415t, 9091
family environment and, 1718, 2528
family history and, 17
gender and, 17, 43
interpersonal vulnerability to, 2528
personality/temperament and, 1820
pharmacotherapy. See alsoAntidepressants
in adolescents, 5961
in adults, 5657
augmentation therapy, 5758
combination therapy, 5758
(p. 869)
prepubertal and adolescent-onset, 68
prevention programs, 7088
for adolescents, 7686
definitions, 7073
future directions and recommendations, 8688
indicated, 7778
research agenda, 9394
risk factors, 7376
universal, 78
psychosocial therapy
for adults, 4650
for children and adolescents, 5061
preventive, 7780, 8386
pubertal status and, 68
race/ethnicity and, 2829
rates of, 17, 635
recurrence of, 4, 58, 83, 90
relationship to schizophrenia, 125126
research agenda, 9094
risk factors for, 1718, 7376, 90
sequelae to, 4, 70
socioeconomic status and, 28
stress and, 2225, 40
studies on, 5t, 1116, 12t, 1415t
subtypes of, 87
treatment research agenda, 9193
maternal
offspring depression and, 1718, 27
response to cognitive-behavioral therapy and, 51
with melancholic features, 8
parental, offspring depression and, 1718, 27, 8083
peripartum onset of, 9
pharmacotherapy for. SeeAntidepressants
postpartum, 4748
postpsychotic, 150
rates of, 17
relapse prevention, 49
schizophrenia and, 125126, 150
self-propagating nature of, 566
specific vulnerability hypothesis and, 2425
stigma and, 602
stress and, 2225
subsyndromal, as risk factor for, 74
suicide and, 5356, 488489, 492
treatment of, 614615
treatment-resistant, 5758
Depression Improvement Across Minnesota–Offering a New Direction (DIAMOND), 612
Desvenlafaxine for major depressive disorder, 56, 60
Detoxification, 446448
Development
of brain during adolescence, 109111, 110f, 203205
youth
applications, 546547
bio-ecological approach, 546
problem-centered approach, 546547
Developmental assets in positive youth development, 546
Developmental group therapy for suicidal youth, 522
Developmental milestones in schizophrenia, premorbid abnormalities, 161162, 161163t, 173
Dextroamphetamine dependence, 397400. See alsoStimulant abuse
Diabetes, 17, 218, 402
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria
anxiety disorders, 197, 266
bipolar disorder, 33
cyclothymic disorder, 30
depression, 13, 527
DSM-5 versus, xxi, 1011
dysthymia, 16
eating disorders, 296297, 346
gambling disorders, 587
generalized anxiety disorder, 197
posttraumatic stress disorder, 260, 268
schizophrenia, 100, 125
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) criteria
alcohol use disorder, 412
anorexia nervosa, 291, 292b
anxiety disorders, 192
binge eating disorder, 293294, 294b
bipolar disorders in youth, 3032
bulimia nervosa, 291293, 293b
depressive disorder criteria changes, 1011
disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), 7
DSM-IV versus, xxi, 1011
eating disorders, 291296, 292294b, 353
gambling disorders, 573, 579
Internet addiction, 586587, 591
major depressive disorder (MDD), 89
schizophrenia, 100
substance use disorder, 392
Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction, 587
Dialectical behavioral therapy
for suicidal adults, 521522
for suicidal youth, 522523
(p. 870) Diathesis-stress model of depression, 2022
Dieting. See alsoWeight loss
anorexia nervosa and, 339
binge-eating disorder and, 347
bulimia nervosa and, 344
Discrimination. SeeStigma of mental illness
Disorder, harmful dysfunction account of, 191192
Disordered gambling. SeeGambling
Disorganization in schizophrenia, 105
Disruptive behavior disorders plus depression, 17
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), xxi, 7, 11
Dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, 610612
designs and measures, 611612
models, 611
summary of, 617
Disulfiram for alcohol use disorders, 446, 450
Divalproex
for bipolar disorder
in adolescents, 64t, 65
maintenance therapy, 6768
for conduct disorder with substance use disorder, 456
Don’t Bet on It gambling prevention program, 583t
Dopamine
in binge-eating disorder, 346
in bulimia nervosa, 342
cortisol and, 120
in drug addiction, xxii, 375, 379382
impulsive behavior and, 383
in schizophrenia, 107108, 122
Dot Probe Attention Allocation Task, 202
Dove media campaign to encourage self-esteem, 360
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), 466467
Drug interactions, 456458
Drug screening, 621625
Drug testing, 467468, 622623
Duloxetine for major depressive disorder, 56, 6061
Dysbindin as schizophrenia susceptibility gene, 128
Dysthymic disorder. SeePersistent depressive disorder


Eating disorders. See alsoAnorexia nervosa; Binge-eating disorder; Bulimia nervosa
avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, 295
combination therapy for, 324325
community attitudes toward, 601
comorbidities, 302303, 365, 456
cultural issues and, 348353
diagnostic criteria for, 291296, 292294b, 292b, 364
diagnostic migration, 304, 365
epidemiology, 293302, 306t, 365
ethnic differences, 301
etiology, 290291
medical complications, 305310, 365
not otherwise specified, 295296, 300301
outcome, 303304, 365
pharmacotherapy for, 321325, 330331, 366
pica, 295
prevalence of, 293302, 298299t
prevention programs for, 353361
combined, 358359
in high-risk populations and settings, 359361
potential harm of, 361
research agenda, 367
targeted, 356358
theoretical models, 353
universal, 354356
psychosocial therapy for, 316321, 325330, 365366
relapse prevention, 325330, 366
research agenda, 364367
risk factors for, 336346, 366367
rumination disorder, 295
substance use disorders and, 456457
symptoms, 301, 301b
treatment, 316333
evaluating, 331333
issues specific to adolescents, 333
research agenda, 365366
weight restoration, 312
E-cigarettes, 448449
“Ecstasy” (MDMA) use
clinical aspects, 422
evolution, 386
liquid, 424
Educating & Supporting Inquisitive Youth in Recovery (ESQYIR), 630
Education. SeePsychoeducation; Training
Electroencephalography
in anxiety disorders, 208209
in schizophrenia, 112
Electrolyte abnormalities in eating disorders, 306t
Electronic health records (EHRs), 609610, 630
Electrophysiology in schizophrenia, 112121
Elevated symptoms of mania (ESM), 30
Emergency department
self-harm prevention, 5556
suicide prevention interventions, 517519
(p. 871) Emotion(s)
brain circuitry for, developmental shifts, 204205
expressed, reduction, family therapy for, 139
positive, 551
Emotional processing
in anxiety disorders, 200
in schizophrenia, 108
Emotional Stroop task, 201202
Endocrine changes. SeeNeuroendocrine changes
Environmental factors
in anorexia nervosa, 339342
in anxiety disorders, 256564
in bulimia nervosa, 344346
in gambling, 577578
in smoking, 420421
in substance use disorders, 383384, 387388
Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, 32
Escitalopram for major depressive disorder, 56, 59, 455
ESM (elevated symptoms of mania), 30
ESQYIR (Educating & Supporting Inquisitive Youth in Recovery), 630
Estrogen
in schizophrenia, 119120
supplementation, in anorexia nervosa, 311
Ethical issues
in anxiety disorders, 278279
online treatment of mental disorders, 615
Ethnicity. SeeRace/ethnicity
Ethnocultural factors in depression, 7576
Event-related potentials (ERPs)
advantages, 112113
in anxiety disorders, 209
in schizophrenia
in children and adolescents, 115119, 117t
contingent negative variation (CNV), 116, 117t
current research on, 112115
gamma-band activity, 113114
late positive component (P300), 115, 116118, 117t
mismatch negativity and post-onset progression of abnormalities, 114115
P1/N1 asymmetry, 116118, 117t
processing negativity (Np), 116118, 117t
sensory gating, 114, 129130
Evidence-based mental health services, 608618
policy, paradigm shifts in, 608610
care and care coordination, integration, 609
financing policies, 610
quality indicators, 609610
practice, paradigm shifts in, 612616
clinical decision making, 615616
family support services, 616
pediatric psychopharmacology, 613
technology advances, 614615
training, 613614
research, paradigm shifts in, 610612
designs and measures, 611612
models, 611
summary of changes in, 616617
Evidence-based practices for substance use disorders, 474475, 627628
Executive inhibitory circuitry defects in substance use disorder, 377
Exercise, weight-bearing, in anorexia nervosa, 311
Exosystem, 546
Exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 232, 233
Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, 199201, 215216
Expressed emotions, reduction, family therapy for, 139
Extracurricular activities, positive youth development and, 556557
Extra-medical use of prescription medications, 390391, 392f
Extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenia, 149


Facing the Odds gambling prevention program, 583t
Familial aggregation in schizophrenia, 124
Family-based interventions
in eating disorders, 332333, 359
evidence-based practice, 616
in major depressive disorder, 8083
in substance abuse, 470472, 471f, 627
for suicidal youth, 522524
Family Check-Up program, 473
Family environment
anorexia nervosa and, 341
anxiety disorders and, 256260, 285
depression and, 1718, 2528, 90
eating disorders and, 321, 341
gambling and, 575
major depressive disorder and, 1718, 2528, 90
schizophrenia and, 125, 139
substance use disorders and, 465
suicidal behavior and, 490492, 494495
Family-focused therapy (FFT) for bipolar disorder, 6263, 86
Family history
ADHD, 36
bipolar disorder and, 30, 34
major depressive disorder and, 17
Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, 468
Family support specialists, 616
(p. 872) Family therapy
for anorexia nervosa, 316317, 326327
attachment-based, for major depressive disorder, 53
for bipolar disorder, 6263
for schizophrenia
in adolescents, 139141
in adults, 140141
for substance use disorders, 435436
for suicide attempters, 55
Fat, body, fear of, as criterion for anorexia nervosa, 291
Fear
versus anxiety, 190
of body fat or weight gain, as criterion for anorexia nervosa, 291
brain circuitry for, developmental shifts, 204
food avoidance due to, 295
stranger, absence of, schizophrenia and, 170
Fear structures in anxiety disorders
cognitive-behavioral therapy and, 214
emotional processing theory and, 200
Feeding and Eating Disorders. SeeEating disorders
Feeding problems, early, bulimia nervosa and, 344
Females. SeeGender differences
FFT (family-focused therapy) for bipolar disorder, 6263
Financial crisis of 2008, 635
Firearms
availability, suicide and, 494495, 508, 635
restriction programs, 510512, 635636
First (initial) onset, definition, 72
Five Cs of positive youth development, 548551
Fixed mindset, positive youth development and, 555
Flow state, 555
Fluid abnormalities in eating disorders, 306t
Flunitrazepam abuse, 424
Fluoxetine
for bipolar disorder, 66
for bulimia nervosa, 322
for generalized anxiety disorder, 224
for major depressive disorder
in adults, 56
in children and adolescents, 59
with substance use disorder, 455456
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 236
for post-traumatic stress disorder, 238
for selective mutism, 223
for social phobia, 222
for suicide attempters, 528529
Flupenthixol for schizophrenia, 146t
Fluphenazine for schizophrenia, 145, 146t, 152154t
Fluvoxamine
for major depressive disorder, 56
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 235236
for separation anxiety disorder, 227
for social anxiety disorder, 222
Follow-back studies in schizophrenia, 167, 172173
Food avoidance, 295
Forget Me, 424
Foster care, 491, 613
FRIENDS program, 273274
Frontal-temporal circuitry in schizophrenia, 121122
Functional MRI
advances in, xxixxii
for anxiety disorders, 207208
for bipolar disorder, 42
electrophysiology versus, 112
for schizophrenia, 121122, 184185


Gambling, xxiii, 572584
age of onset, 575
awareness of, 584
overview, 572573
prevalence of, 573574
prevention of, 581584, 583t
protective factors, 578
risk factors for, 575578
severity, assessing and measuring, 578579
treatment, 579581
Gaming addiction. SeeInternet addiction
Gamma-band activity in schizophrenia, 113114
Gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB), 424
Gang affiliation, anxiety disorders and, 261262
Gastrointestinal abnormalities in eating disorders, 306t
Gatekeeper training programs, 500502
Gateway theory of substance abuse, 462463
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 513514
Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), 513514
GBG (Good Behavior Game), 467, 503
Gender differences
anorexia nervosa, 338
anxiety disorders, 196197
bipolar disorder, 35
bulimia nervosa, 343
eating disorders, 302, 338, 340, 343, 347
gambling, 573, 576
major depressive disorder, 67, 1011, 13, 17, 43, 75
substance use disorders, 463, 478
suicide, 485, 534
Gender identity, 491492, 495
Generalized anxiety disorder, 223226 (p. 873)
comorbidities, 197198, 197t
description, 195
genetics, 209211, 209t
signs and symptoms, 194195t
treatment, 219t
in adults, 223224
in children and adolescents, 224226
maintenance of gains, 243244
management of partial response and nonresponse to, 246
General liability theory for substance abuse, 463464
General Theory of Addiction, 581
Genes, susceptibility
in schizophrenia, 127128
and adolescence, 129
identification, 127128
in substance use disorders, 385
Genetic counseling in schizophrenia, 130131
Genetics
anorexia nervosa, 336337
anxiety disorders, 209211, 209t, 256
binge-eating disorder, 346
bipolar disorder, 3435, 4041
bulimia nervosa, 342
depression, 3940
schizophrenia, 105106, 124131, 177178
substance use disorders, 382386, 383f, 463464, 472473
suicidal behavior, 489490
Genome scans in schizophrenia, 126
Georgia Home Boy, 424
GHB (Gammahydroxybutyrate), 424
Global Burden of Disease Study, 349
Glucocorticoids in stress response, 40
Gonadal hormones, adolescent behavior and, 119
Good Behavior Game (GBG), 467, 503
Gratitude, positive youth development and, 553
Gray matter volume
developmental changes, 109111, 110f
in schizophrenia, 109112, 114115
Great Smoky Mountain Study
anxiety disorders and, 196199, 253254
bipolar disorder and, 3233, 34t
depression and, 14t
dysthymia and, 13
overview, 5t, 13
Group interventions, multiple family, 616
Group therapy
for bipolar disorder, 63
for suicidal youth, 522
Growth hormone in major depressive disorder, 43
Growth mindset, positive youth development and, 555
Growth retardation in anorexia nervosa, 308
GSAs (Gay-Straight Alliances), 513514
Gymnastics, anorexia nervosa and, 341, 360


Hallucinogens, 424425
Haloperidol
with lithium, for bipolar disorder, 66
for schizophrenia, 146148t, 152153t
Harm avoidance
anorexia nervosa and, 377
anxiety disorder detection and screening, 266
depression and, 18
eating disorders and, 337
vulnerability to depression and, 1819
Harm-minimization prevention programs, 581582
Headache, depression and, 17
Healthcare settings, screening for substance use disorders in, 622
Health insurance. See alsoMedicaid
adolescent, 634
minor consent and confidentiality, 630
policy changes, 608609
reform, 620631
Help-Seeking behavior, stigma of mental illness and, 600602
Hematopoietic abnormalities in eating disorders, 306t
Heroin use
behavioral therapy for, 436437
clinical aspects, 394397, 396t
detoxification, 447
medications for long-term treatment, 447, 451
neurobiology of addiction, 372374
withdrawal, 397
Heschl gyrus in schizophrenia, 114115
High-risk studies in schizophrenia, 166, 168, 170172, 177178
Hippocampus
in anxiety disorders, 217
in suicidal behavior, 490
Hispanic Americans
depression, 28, 52, 75, 82
eating disorders, 351
female suicide attempters, emergency department interventions, 518
gambling, 576577
suicide rate, 485
HIV disease, 17
Homelessness, 491
Homosexuality, suicidal behavior and, 491492, 495, 508, 513514, 524
Hooked City gambling prevention program, 583t
Hope, positive youth development and, 554
(p. 874) Hopelessness, suicidal behavior and, 489
Hormonal changes. SeeNeuroendocrine changes
Hormone replacement therapy in anorexia nervosa, 311
Hospitalism, 22
HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis. See Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
HPG (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal) axis, 119
Hypokalemia in bulimia nervosa, 309
Hyponatremia in anorexia nervosa, 305
Hypophosphatemia in anorexia nervosa, 305, 310
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
in anxiety disorders, 206207
axis activation in puberty, 119120
in mood disorders, 4041
in schizophrenia, 119120
in schizotypal personality disorder, 120
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, 119


Ibogaine, 424
ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision), 100
Iceland, depression prevention program in, 7980
Imaging studies. SeeNeuroimaging
Imipramine
for panic disorder, 247
for separation anxiety disorder, 227
Immunology in anxiety disorders, 207
Impulse control disorder
addiction versus, 586587
in drug addiction, 373
in Internet addiction, 589590
Impulse control disorder in drug addiction, 374f
Impulsivity
bulimia nervosa, 345346
positive youth development, 550
substance use disorder, 382
suicidal behavior and, 489
Indicated prevention programs
anxiety disorders, 270272
definition, 72
eating disorders, 359
major depressive disorder, 7778
suicide, 516531
Infant depression, 22, 4748
Infertility in anorexia nervosa, 308
Information processing in schizophrenia, event-related indices, 115119, 117t
Inhalant abuse, 422424
Initial onset, definition, 72
Inpatient treatment
anorexia nervosa, 326
bipolar disorder, 62
substance use disorders, 429430, 443
Insomnia, 594
Institute of Medicine, report on prevention of mental disorders, 7173, 76
Insurance. SeeHealth insurance
Intelligence quotient in children of schizophrenic parents, 164, 164t
Interactive Screening Program, 499
Intermittent explosive disorder, 7
International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD- 10), 100
Internet addiction, xxiii, 586595
assessment, 586588
characteristics, 592594, 592t, 593f
cognitive-behavioral model of, 588590
comorbidities, 589
defined, 586
Internet gaming disorder, xxiii, 586587
other addictions, compared, 588
other health correlates, 594
prevalence of, 591592
therapeutic interventions, 594595
type of Internet use and, 590591
Internet Addiction Test, 587
Internet-based relapse prevention, 329330, 332
Internet gambling, 572573
Internet gaming disorder, xxiii, 586587
Internet interventions/surveys
CBT delivery, 614615
depression, 56
eating disorders, 360
evidence-based practice training, 614
stigma of mental illness, 600, 605
substance use disorder continuing care, 630
suicidal behavior, 499
Interpersonal relationships
alcohol use disorders and, 413414
depression and, 2528
suicidal behavior and, 491
Interpersonal therapy
for binge-eating disorder, 321, 328329
for bipolar disorder, with social rhythm therapy, 62
for bulimia nervosa, 328
for major depressive disorder
in adolescents, 5253
in adults, 4748, 49
for schizophrenia, 138
for suicide attempts, 5456
Interpretative threat bias in anxiety disorders, 202203
Interventions in adolescence. See also specific types, e.g., Cognitive-behavioral therapy (p. 875)
early, 625626
pharmacological. SeePharmacotherapy
preventive. SeePrevention programs
psychosocial. SeePsychosocial therapy
Interview
in eating disorders, 353
motivational, in substance use disorders, 439440, 473
psychiatric, in schizophrenia, 134135
Introversion, 210, 256
Ipecac abuse in bulimia nervosa, 309


Juvenile justice system
access to care, 613
reform of, 636
suicide prevention programs in, 512513


Ketamine, 425426
Kindness, positive youth development and, 553554


Labels, stigma and, 602
Lamotrigine for bipolar disorder, 67
LAMS (Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms) Study, 3031, 3536
Language delay in schizophrenia, premorbid abnormalities and, 161, 162t
Latinos. SeeHispanic Americans
Learning theories for anxiety disorders, 199201
Legal issues, suicidal behavior and, 492
Levomilnacipran for major depressive disorder, 56
LGBT youth, suicidal behavior and, 491492, 495, 508, 513514, 524
Life Goals Program for bipolar disorder, 63
Lifelines program, 504
Life satisfaction, positive youth development and, 522553
Life Skills Training Program, 467, 473
Life stress, early
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, 4041
major depression and, 2225, 40
Lifetime morbid risk (LMR), 11
Linkage disequilibrium studies in schizophrenia, 126128
Linkage studies
in schizophrenia, 126
in substance use disorders, 385
Lisdexamfetamine
for ADHD with substance use disorder, 454
for binge-eating disorder, 323
Lithium
for anorexia nervosa, 322
for bipolar disorder
in adolescents, 6465, 64t
with antipsychotics, 66
with divalproex, 6667
maintenance therapy, 67
for major depressive disorder, 58, 61
for schizophrenia, 150, 153t
for suicide attempters, 528
Lithium for major depressive disorder, 58
LMR (lifetime morbid risk), 11
Locus ceruleus in anxiety disorders, 207
Locus coeruleus in anxiety disorders, 216
Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) Study, 3031, 3536
Lorazepam for schizophrenia, 147t
Loss-of-control eating, 347348
Lottery. SeeGambling
Love our Kids: Lock Your Guns program, 511
Loxapine for schizophrenia, 153t
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), 424425


Macrosystem, 546
Magnetic resonance imaging. See alsoFunctional MRI
advances in, xxixxii
anxiety, 217
brain volumetric, in schizophrenia, 109112
in mood disorders, 4244
morphometric, in anxiety disorders, 208
Magnetoencephalography in schizophrenia, 118119
Maintenance/interventions, definition, 72
Major depressive disorder. SeeDepression, major
Malnutrition, medical complications and, 305, 306t, 307
Maltreatment, depression and, 25, 34
Mandatory random drug testing, 467468
Mania. See alsoBipolar disorder
age of onset, 29
comorbidities
anxiety disorders, 3738
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 37
conduct disorder, 37
substance abuse, 3839
diagnostic criteria for, 3031
mixed, 3031
Marijuana use
age of purchase, 470
anxiety and, 261
bipolar disorder and, 39
clinical aspects of, 400406, 405f
family-focused interventions for, 470
in gateway theory, 462463
(p. 876)
mass media prevention campaigns for, 468469
prevalence of, xxii
schizophrenia and, 143
screening for, 624
treatment, 428, 432, 437, 440
withdrawal, 403
Mass media
drug abuse prevention campaigns, 468469
eating disorders and, 350, 352353
misinformation about mental illness, 602603
for reducing stigma of mental illness, 604605
suicide coverage, 492493
Maternal depression
offspring depression and, 1718, 27
response to cognitive-behavioral therapy and, 51
Maternal health, anorexia nervosa and, 338
Maternal-infant therapy for depression, 4748
Maudsley method in anorexia nervosa, 317318
Meaning, pursuit of, in positive psychology, 552
Media. SeeMass media
Medicaid
family support services, 616
patient-centered medical homes and, 609
payment reforms, 610
quality measures and, 610
Medical disorders, depression and, 17
Melancholic features, depression with, 8
Menarche, early, bulimia nervosa and, 343
Mental health disorders. See also specific disorders, e.g., Anxiety disorders
confidentiality issues, 499
future and pressing issues for
firearms, 635636
national youth development strategy, 636637
poverty, 635
research, 636
gambling behavior and, 577
interventions
pharmacological. See Pharmacotherapy
preventive. SeePrevention programs
psychosocial. SeePsychosocial therapy
school-based. SeeSchools
misinformation about, 602603
rate of, xxi
stigma of, 600606
in community attitudes, 601
factors contributing to, 601603
reducing, 603605
treatment
definition, 72
effectiveness, 72
impact of stigmatization, 601603
Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA), xxiiixxiv, 608, 617, 621, 634
Mental health services
school-based. See under Schools
Mental Health Services Act of 2004, 605
Mescaline, 424
Metabolic syndrome, 58
Methadone for opioid addiction, 446447, 451
Methamphetamine dependence, 397400. See alsoStimulant abuse
Mexican Americans. SeeHispanic Americans
Microsystem, 546
Milnacipran for major depressive disorder, 56
Mindset, positive youth development and, 554555
Minnesota Twelve-Step model for substance use disorders, 440
Minor consent for services, 630631
Mirtazapine for major depressive disorder, 5758, 6061
Molecular genetic studies in schizophrenia, 130
Molindone for schizophrenia, 146t, 153t
Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, 389392, 395, 399, 408409
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for major depressive disorder, 57, 58, 455
Mood disorders. See alsoBipolar disorder; Depression
age of onset, 6
biology, 3943
comorbidities
alcohol use disorders, 414
eating disorders, 302, 303
epidemiology and definitions, 443
research agenda, 9094
schizophrenia, relationship to, 125126, 150
seasonal, 9
suicidal behavior and, 488489
trait vulnerability factor common to, 1819
treatment, xxii, 4668, 614615
Mood stabilizers. See also specific drugs, e.g., Lithium
for bipolar disorder
in adolescents, 6465, 64t
combination therapy, 6667
for bulimia nervosa, 330331
for schizophrenia, 150
(p. 877) Moral development, 550
Motivational interviews
in depression, 54
in substance use disorders, 439440, 473
Motor deficits in schizophrenia, 106108, 161162, 161t, 163t, 169t, 170, 171, 172173
MPH-SODAS (Spheroidal Oral Drug Absorption System), 454
Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), 266
Multidimensional family therapy for substance use disorders, 436
Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST), 474
Multisystemic therapy
for substance use disorders, 435
for suicide attempts, 55
Mutism, selective
in DSM-5, xxi, 192
maintenance of gains, 243
as social phobia, 222
treatment, 219t, 223
Myelinization
brain, 109111, 110f
in schizophrenia, 109111


Naltrexone
for alcohol use disorders, 446, 450
for opioid addiction, 451
Narcotic abuse. SeeOpioid abuse
National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth (NARSY), 601
National Comorbidity Survey (NCS)
bipolar disorder and, 3233
depression and, 11, 12t
overview, 5t
substance use disorders and, 445
National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), 11, 260, 297, 343
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 5t, 11, 12t, 16, 35
National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health (NHSDUH), 389390
National Institute of Health, 636
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
on anxiety disorder treatments, 218
Center for Prevention Research, 71
depression diagnosis and, 4
depression research of, 9192, 527
history of prevention in mental health and, 7071
mental health research of, 610611, 617
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of, 364, 636
substance use disorder research of, 442
National Network of Child Psychiatry Access Programs, 613
National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)
on alcohol dependence, 407408, 412
on children of substance abusing parents, 429
on cocaine use, 399
on current trends in drug use, 389392
on marijuana use, 403405
on prescription pain relievers, 395
National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 469
National youth development strategy, 636637
Native Americans
bipolar disorder, 35
poverty, 635
suicide prevention programs for, 508509
suicide rate, 485
Nefazodone for major depressive disorder, 60
Negative affectivity
anorexia nervosa and, 338339
and vulnerability to depression, 1819
Negative cognitions
anxiety disorders, 200
depression, 46, 9091
interpersonal relationships and, 25
suicidal behavior and, 489
vulnerability to depression and, 2022
Negative life events
anorexia nervosa and, 341
social support and, 264
suicidal behavior and, 490492
Negative self-talk, anxiety disorders and, 215
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia, 105
Neuregulin 1 as schizophrenia susceptibility gene, 128
Neuroanatomic studies in schizophrenia, 109112
Neurobehavioral deficits in schizophrenia, 106109
Neurobiology
anorexia nervosa and, 337338
anxiety disorders and, 205211, 216218
binge-eating disorder and, 346347
bulimia nervosa and, 342343
schizophrenia and, 106121, 166
substance use disorders and, 372382
suicidal behavior and, 490
Neurochemistry, anxiety disorders and, 207
Neurocognitive functioning in anorexia nervosa, 337
(p. 878) Neuroendocrine changes
during adolescence, 119120
child abuse and, 41
in eating disorders, 306t
in schizophrenia, 119121
Neuroimaging
advances in, xxixxii
in anxiety disorders, 207208
in mood disorders, 4244
in schizophrenia, 109112
in substance use disorders, 379382
Neuroleptic augmentation for OCD, 247
Neurologic signs in schizophrenia, premorbid abnormalities, 169t, 170, 172, 173
Neuropsychological deficits in children of schizophrenic parents, 177
Neuroticism
anxiety disorders and, 210, 256
bulimia nervosa and, 345
as risk factor for psychopathology, 19
and vulnerability to depression, 1819
Neurotransmitter systems. See also specific types, e.g., Serotonin
in anxiety disorders, 217
in eating disorders, 324
in schizophrenia, 120
in substance use disorders, 374376
A New State of Mind: Ending the Stigma of Mental Illness (film), 605
NHSDUH (National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health), 389390
Nicotine receptors, smoking and, 383
Nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT), 446, 449
Nigrostriatal pathway and motor dysfunction in schizophrenia, 107
Novelty, amygdala response to, 205206
Np (processing negativity) in schizophrenia, 116118, 117t


Obesity
anorexia nervosa and, 338
binge-eating disorder and, 347
depression and, 17
dieting and, 344
prevention programs, 355356, 358359
as risk factor for eating disorders, 359
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
in children and adolescents, 232238
in DSM-5, xxi, 193
eating disorders and, 302, 303, 340, 345
genetics and, 209t
PANDAS subgroup, 207, 233, 237
rating scale for, 268
signs and symptoms of, 193t
treatment
acute, 219t
in adults, 231232
in children and adolescents, 233238
investigational, 237238
maintenance of gains, 244245
management of partial response and nonresponse to, 247248
Obstetrics-gynecology, detection and screening of anxiety disorders and, 268
Olanzapine
for anorexia nervosa, 321322, 324, 366
for bipolar disorder, 64t, 6566, 455
for major depressive disorder, 58
for post-traumatic stress disorder, 248
for schizophrenia, 145t, 147148t
for treatment-resistant depression, 527528
Ondansetron for bulimia nervosa, 323
Online interventions. SeeInternet interventions/surveys
Onset
first (initial), definition, 72
risk of, versus risk of relapse, 73
Opening Minds program, 606
Opioid abuse
behavioral therapy for, 436437
clinical aspects, 394397
detoxification, 447
medications for long-term treatment, 451
withdrawal, 397
Opioid pain relievers, 394397
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
anxiety disorder and, 198, 203
disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and, 7
substance use disorder and, 429
Optimism, 554
Oregon Adolescent Depression Project Study
bipolar disorder and, 33, 34t
overview, 5t
Orlistat for binge-eating disorder, 323
Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) for ADHD plus substance use disorder, 453
Osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa, 308309, 310312
Outward Bound, 430431, 561b
Oxcarbazepine for bipolar disorder in adolescents, 64t


P1/N1 asymmetry in schizophrenia, 116118, 117t
P50-early sensory gating endophenotype in schizophrenia, 114, 129130
P300 (late positive component) in schizophrenia, 115, 116118, 117t
PACE (Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation) clinic, 135136
Pacific Islanders, suicide rate of, 485
Pain relievers, opioid, 394397
PANDAS subgroup of OCD, 207, 233, 237
Panic attacks, neuroticism and, 19
Panic control treatment, 219t, 230231
Panic disorder
in children and adolescents, 230231
comorbidities, 197t, 198
bipolar disorder, 3738
bulimia nervosa, 303
description of, 195
genetics and, 209210, 209t
prevention of, 270271
rating scales for, 267268
signs and symptoms of, 193t
suicidal behavior and, 488
treatment, 219t
in adults, 229230
in children and adolescents, 230231
maintenance of gains, 244
management of partial response and nonresponse to, 246247
Parent(s)
depressed
and offspring depression, 1718, 27, 63, 8083, 87
and response to cognitive-behavioral therapy, 51
firearms counseling programs for, 510512
gambling behavior of, 576
impairments of, 635
substance use by, and offspring substance use, 429
suicidal, and offspring suicide, 489490
Parent-child interaction
in anxiety disorders, 256258
in Internet addiction, 593594
in suicidal behavior, 489490
Parenting dimension
in alcohol use disorders, 413414
in anxiety disorders, 258260
in depression, 2526
Parietal circuitry in schizophrenia, 121122
Paroxetine
for anxiety disorders, 22, 236
for major depressive disorder
in adolescents, 59, 455
in adults, 56
for panic disorder, 247
for post-traumatic stress disorder, 238
for social anxiety disorder, 243
for social phobia, 222
Partnership for Drug-Free Kids, 469
Pathological Internet use. SeeInternet addiction
Pathways for Youth, 636
Pathways Model, 577, 581
Patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs)/health homes, 609
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), xxiiixxiv, 608610, 617, 620621
Patterson’s developmental theory of substance abuse, 464465, 465f
Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA), xxiiixxiv, 608, 617, 621, 634
PCP (phencyclidine), 425426
Peer parents, 616
Peer relations
alcohol use disorders and, 413414
anxiety disorders and, 260261
binge-eating disorder and, 348
in children of schizophrenic parents, 172, 174
depression and, 2627
eating disorders and, 352353
evidence-based practice for, 616
gambling and, 575, 576
smoking and, 420
substance use disorder and, 384
suicide and, 5455, 491493
support groups, 614615
Penn Resiliency Program, 7778, 558b
Perfectionism
anorexia nervosa and, 337339
anxiety disorders and, 222
bulimia nervosa and, 343
Performance-limited social anxiety, 192, 195
Perinatal events
anorexia nervosa and, 338
bulimia nervosa and, 344
Perseverance, positive youth development and, 554
(p. 880) Persistent depressive disorder
with ADHD, 9
DSM-V changes and, 11
lifetime prevalence of, 13
major depressive disorder and, 910
secondary, 7
Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) clinic, 135136
Personal Growth Class (PGC), 516
Personality
anorexia nervosa and, 338339
anxiety disorders and, 210, 256
bulimia nervosa and, 343344
of children of schizophrenic parents, 177
gambling and, 577
genetic contributions to, 210
major depressive disorder and, 1820
smoking and, 421
suicidal behavior and, 489
Personality disorder(s)
anorexia nervosa and, 302
borderline, plus suicidal behavior, dialectical behavioral therapy for, 522
schizotypal, 100, 177
HPA axis in, 120
movement abnormalities, 107
Pessimistic attributional style
suicidal behavior and, 489
vulnerability to depression and, 2022
PGC (Personal Growth Class), 516
Pharmacotherapy
for anorexia nervosa, 321322, 330
for anxiety disorders
with cognitive-behavioral therapy, 218219
rationale, 216218
research agenda, 283284
for binge-eating disorder, 331
for bipolar disorder
in adolescents, 6367, 64t
combination therapy, 6667
maintenance therapy, 67
for bulimia nervosa, 322323, 330331
drug interactions and, 456458
for eating disorders, 321325, 330331, 366
evidence-based practice and, 613
for generalized anxiety disorder, 219t, 224
for Internet addiction, 595
for major depressive disorder. See alsoAntidepressants
in adolescents, 5961
in adults, 5657
augmentation therapy, 5758
combination therapy, 5758
for panic disorder, 219t, 229230, 231
for phobia, 219t, 227228, 229
for post-traumatic stress disorder, 219t, 238, 242
for schizophrenia, 143156
acute treatment, 144149, 145148t
adjunctive agents, 149150
antipsychotic, 144, 145, 145148t, 149, 151, 152154t, 155
continuation and maintenance treatment, 151, 152154t, 155
preventive, 179
for selective mutism, 219t, 223
for separation anxiety disorder, 219t, 227
for social anxiety disorder, 218219, 219t, 222
for substance use disorders, 444457, 627
for suicide attempters, 526531
Phencyclidine (PCP), 425426
Phenelzine for social anxiety disorder, 243
Phenomics, 105
Phobia
in children and adolescents, 228229
comorbidities, 197t, 198, 345
description of, 192
genetics and, 209211, 209t
neuroticism and, 19
signs and symptoms of, 194195t
treatment, 219t
in adults, 227228
in children and adolescents, 228229
maintenance of gains, 244
management of partial response and nonresponse to, 246
Physical abuse, suicidal behavior and, 490491
Physicians
anxiety disorders, monitoring for symptoms of, 268
eating disorders, treatment of, 322
inpatient detoxification and, 447448
integrated care and care coordination with, 609
role of, 613614
SSRI antidepressant risk monitoring, 92, 528529
substance use disorders, screening for, 622, 624
Pica, 295
Pimozide for schizophrenia, 146t, 152t
Pindolol, augmentation effect, in panic disorder, 247
Political interventions, xxiiixxiv
for evidence-based practice, 608610
for firearm restriction, 635636
for prevention of major depressive disorder, 88
for substance use disorder treatments, 620621
Polypharmacy, 456457
Population stratification artifact, 127
Positive Action Program, 558b
(p. 881) Positive and Secondary Control Enhancement Therapy (PASCET), 51
Positive education, 547
Positive emotions, 551553, 556557
Positive prevention, 564565
Positive psychology
definition, 547
as goal of prevention programs, 73, 566
individual characteristics, 553555
as outcome target for anxiety prevention studies, 275
positive youth development field, integration with, 547, 551555
principles, 551553
in schools, 547548
Positive rehabilitation, 565566
Positive relationships, 552
Positive youth development, xxiii, 544568
for at-risk and troubled youth, 564566
core components of, 548551
description of, 545548
future directions for, 563566
glossary of terms, 567568
history of, 544545
indicators of, 559
natural history studies, 563564
overview, 544545
positive psychology movement, integration with, 547, 551555
problem-centered approaches versus, 546547
programs, 555566
model, 557, 558559b
outcome studies, 557, 559, 560561b
recommendations for, 559, 562563
research needs, 563566
resiliency in, 548
for substance abuse prevention, 474
summary of current knowledge, 559, 562563
working assumptions, 545
Positron emission tomography (PET), 105, 112
Postpartum depression, 4748
Post-traumatic stress disorder
alcohol use disorders and, 415
bulimia nervosa and, 303, 345
in children and adolescents, 238239
in DSM-5, xxi, 192
neuroticism and, 19
prevention of, 270, 278
rating scales for, 267268
signs and symptoms of, 194t
social support and, 263264
substance abuse and, 261
trauma exposure, adolescence and, 262263
treatment, 219t
in adults, 238
in children and adolescents, 239242
maintenance of gains, 245
management of partial response and nonresponse to, 248
Poverty
depression and, 34, 7475
effects of, 635
firearm access and, 635636
suicidal behavior, 491
Prefrontal cortex
anxiety and, 217
developmental changes in, 204
suicidal behavior and, 490
Prefrontal-striatal circuitry in schizophrenia, 121122
Premature birth, anorexia nervosa and, 338
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, 1011
Prevalence
lifetime, 297
point, 297
Prevalence rate, 297
Prevention. See also specific disorders
definitions, 7073
positive, 73, 564565
timing for, 86
Prevention programs. See also Universal prevention programs; specific disorders
anxiety disorders, 269275
for at-risk individuals, 563
eating disorders, 353361
gambling, 581584, 583t
goals, 73
historical context, 7073
major depressive disorder, 7686
schizophrenia, 134136, 178180
stages, 76
substance use disorders, 466473
suicide, 498540
Privacy. SeeConfidentiality
Problem behavior theory of substance abuse, 463464
Problem-centered approach to youth development, 546547
Problem-solving therapy
for anxiety disorders, 215
for major depressive disorder, 4849
for schizophrenia, 138139
for suicidal adolescents, 502503
for suicidal adults, 522
Procyclidine for schizophrenia, 152t
Project STAR, 471472
Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies program, 558b
(p. 882) Promotion programs, 563. See alsoPositive youth development
Prospective studies in schizophrenia, 166167, 168, 170172
Protective factors, definition, 73
Pruning process
in brain development, 109110, 110f, 203
in schizophrenia, 109110
Psilocybin, 424
Psychiatric interview in schizophrenia, 134135
Psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia, premorbid abnormalities, 168, 169t, 171172
Psychiatry for detection and screening of anxiety disorders, 268269
Psychobehavioral influences in alcohol use disorders, 414
Psychodynamic therapy, brief, for major depressive disorder, 48
Psychoeducation. See alsoTraining
for anxiety disorders, 215
for bipolar disorder, 6263
for depression, 87
for eating disorders, 354358
for reducing stigma of mental illness, 603
for schizophrenia, 134135, 139141, 179
for substance abuse, 466467
for suicide prevention, 498505
Psychological characteristics of positive youth development, 551555
Psychological debriefing, 278
Psychological factors in smoking, 421
Psychology, positive. SeePositive psychology
Psychopharmacotherapy. SeePharmacotherapy
Psychosocial assessment in schizophrenia, 101102
Psychosocial rehabilitation, 566
Psychosocial therapy. See also specific types, e.g., Cognitive-behavioral therapy
for anorexia nervosa, 316320, 326327
for anxiety disorders
with pharmacotherapy, 218219
rationale, 214216
research agenda, 283284
for bipolar disorder, 6263
for bulimia nervosa, 320321, 328329
for eating disorders, 316321, 325330, 365366
for generalized anxiety disorder, 219t, 222223, 224225
for Internet addiction, 594595
for major depressive disorder
in adults, 4650
in children and adolescents, 5061
preventive, 7780, 8386
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 231232, 233235
for panic disorder, 230231
for phobia, 228229
for post-traumatic stress disorder, 219t, 238, 239242
for schizophrenia, 134142, 151
for selective mutism, 219t, 223
for separation anxiety disorder, 219t, 226227
for social anxiety disorder, 218219, 219t, 221222
for substance use disorders, 430444, 627
for suicide attempters, 520525
Psychotherapy. See alsoPsychosocial therapy
for anxiety disorder, xxii
for mood disturbances, xxii
for self-harm, 55
for suicidal behavior, 520525
Psychoticism in schizophrenia, 105
Psychotropic drugs. See also specific type, e.g., Antipsychotics
for eating disorders, 323324
Pubertal delay in anorexia nervosa, 308
Pubertal status
anorexia nervosa and, 338
major depressive disorder and, 68
Purging in anorexia nervosa, 291, 292b, 302
Purpose, positive youth development and, 552


Quaalude, 388
Quality indicators of mental health services, 609610, 616
Quantum Opportunities Program, 558b
Question Persuade Refer (QPR), 501502
Quetiapine
for anorexia nervosa, 322
for bipolar disorder, 64t, 6568, 455
for major depressive disorder, 58
for treatment-resistant depression, 528


Race/ethnicity. See also specific races and ethnicities
access to mental health services and, 613
anorexia nervosa and, 340341
depression and, 2829
eating disorders and, 301, 351352
gambling and, 573, 576577
Internet addiction and, 591592
suicide and, 485
Random drug testing, 467468, 622623
Rapid Response (RR) emergency department intervention for suicidal adolescents, 518
Rating scales for anxiety disorders, 264269
RCMAS (Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale), 266
RDoC (Research Domain Criteria), 364, 636
Reaction Index, 267
(p. 883) Reboxetine for major depressive disorder, 57
Reconnecting Youth (RY) Prevention Research Program, 472, 516
Recovery schools, 629630
Refeeding in anorexia nervosa, 310
Referral practices, school-based health centers and, 624
Rehabilitation, positive, 565
Relaxation exercises for anxiety disorders, 215
Renal disease, 17
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 61
Research agendas
anxiety disorders, 282286
bipolar disorder, 9496
eating disorders, 364367
evidence-based mental health services, 610612
major depressive disorder, 9094
mood disorders, 9094
schizophrenia, 182185
substance use disorders, 478479
suicide prevention, 534540
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), 364, 636
Resiliency
in children of depressed parents, 8081
gambling behavior and, 578, 582
as goal of prevention programs, 73
as outcome of positive youth development, 548
Resourceful Adolescent Parenting Program (RAP-P), 55, 524
Respiratory system in panic disorder, 206, 254
Restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa, 291, 292b
Restrictive food intake disorder, 295
Retrospective studies in schizophrenia, 167, 172173
Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), 266
Reward center dysregulation
allostasis and, 376
in animal models, 373376, 374f
imaging studies and, 379382
pharmacotherapy for, 446
Risk factors, definition, 7273
Risk of onset versus risk of relapse, 73
Risperidone
for anorexia nervosa, 322
augmentation effect, in obsessive-compulsive disorder, 247
for bipolar disorder, 64t, 65, 455
with lithium, 66
for conduct disorder with substance use disorder, 456
for obsessive compulsive disorder, 247
for schizophrenia, 145, 145t, 147148t, 179
Ritual prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 232, 233
Rohypnol abuse, 424
Roofies, 424
rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation), 61
Rumination disorder, 295


Sample size for prevention studies, 86
SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment) projects, 622625
Schizophrenia, xxiii
adolescent-onset, developmental precursors, 165180
age-at-onset, 100, 159, 159t
brain circuitry in, 121123
frontal-temporal, 121122
implications for adolescence, 123
prefrontal-striatal, 121122
brain developmental abnormalities and, 165, 177
children at risk for, longitudinal studies, 166, 168, 170172, 177178
cognitive deficits, 108109
pharmacotherapy, 149
premorbid, 164, 164t, 170172, 171f, 173, 175
comorbid syndromes, adjunctive treatments, 149150
defining, 100131
depression and, 125126, 150
diagnostic criteria for, 100101
duration of untreated psychosis, outcome and, 135, 155
early interventions
effectiveness, 178180
preventive strategies, 134136
early-onset, 100, 102104
educational interventions, 134135, 139141, 179
electrophysiology, 112121
emotion-processing deficits, 108
endophenotypes
definitions based on, 105
gene-finding utility, 129130
molecular genetic studies, 130
research findings, 168, 169t, 172, 173
etiology, 106121
event-related potential studies, 112121, 117t.See alsoEvent-related potentials (ERPs)
acute treatment, 144, 146148t
maintenance treatment, 151, 152154t, 155
pharmacological management, 144156, 146148t
psychotic relapses after, 144
(p. 884)
treatment of residual symptoms and comorbid syndromes, 149150
treatment-refractory, 149
genetic counseling, 130131
genetic studies, 124131, 177178
of association, 126128
and disease mechanisms, 128129
endophenotypes for, 105, 130
of familial aggregation, 124
future directions, 131
of linkage, 126127
of psychiatric disorders transmitted, 125126
susceptibility genes, 127128
twin, 125
magnetoencephalography, 118119
motor deficits, 106108, 161162, 161t, 163t, 169t, 170, 171, 172173
natural history of, 104t
negative symptoms, 105, 149
neuroanatomic studies on, 109112
neurobehavioral deficits and, 106109
neurobiology and, 106121, 166
neuroendocrinology and, 119121
outcome studies on, 142
overview of, 100106
pathophysiology, in adolescence, 123124
pharmacotherapy, 143156
acute treatment, 144149, 145148t
adjunctive agents, 149150
antipsychotics, 144, 145, 145148t, 149, 151, 152154t, 155
continuation and maintenance treatment, 151, 152154t, 155
preventive, 179
phenomenology, 101105
and genetics, 105106
and neural basis, 104105
research questions, 104
positive symptoms, pharmacotherapy, 149
premorbid abnormalities, 159165
age specificity, 168, 169t, 170172
behavioral problems, 162164, 168, 169t, 170, 173174, 175176
birth cohort studies, 166, 172
cognitive deficits, 164, 164t, 170172, 171f, 173, 175
consistency of findings, 172173
developmental milestones, 161162, 161t, 163t, 173
follow-back studies, 167, 172173
high-risk studies, 166, 168, 170172, 177178
implications for preventive intervention, 175176
key precursors, 176178
language delay, 161, 162t
motor deficits, 161162, 161t, 163t, 169t, 170, 171, 172173
neurologic signs, 169t, 170, 172, 173
psychiatric symptoms (nonschizophrenic), 168, 169t, 171172
research needs, 174175
research strategies to identify, 167174
and vulnerability hypothesis, 165
prevention efforts, 158180, 565
effectiveness, 178180
strategies, 134136, 158
targets for, 175176
prodromal symptoms, 102103, 102b, 104t, 159
acute treatment, 144, 145t, 149
characteristics, 143, 176177
early treatment projects, 135136
maintenance treatment, 151, 155
psychosocial assessment, 101102
psychosocial treatment, 134142, 151
cognitive-behavioral therapy, 136137, 149150
cognitive remediation therapy, 137138
compliance therapy, 141
family-oriented, 139141
interpersonal therapy, 138
preventive, 179
social skills training, 138139
relapses, 144
research agenda, 182185
residual symptoms, adjunctive treatments, 149150
risk factors for
developmental perspective, 167174
and prevention strategies, 158
simple, 100
spectrum of, 125126
stigmatization of, 601, 602
substance abuse and, 101, 142143
suicidal behavior and, 150
symptoms of
assessment, 101
dimensional groupings, 105
early, and illness course, 102104, 102b, 104t
treatment, 134156
very early-onset, 100, 103
Schizotaxia, 158, 177
Schizotypal personality disorder
children of schizophrenic parents and, 177
in DSM- 5, 100
HPA axis in, 120
movement abnormalities, 107
School factors. See alsoPeer relations (p. 885)
in anxiety disorders, 260261
in suicidal behavior, 493, 495
School refusal. See alsoSeparation anxiety disorder
and detection of anxiety disorders, 267
Schools. See alsoColleges
drug testing programs, 467468
educational interventions
drug abuse, 466468
eating disorders, 354356
gambling, 582, 583t
for reducing stigma of mental illness, 603, 606
schizophrenia, 134135, 179
social anxiety disorder, 222
suicide prevention, 493
positive psychology, 547548
positive youth development programs, 556559, 558561b
postvention programs, 509510
screening programs
anxiety disorders, 266268
substance use, 622623
suicide prevention, 5455, 498500, 502505
training for staff in, 628, 634
treatment programs, suicide attempters, 516517
Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, 266
Screening
anxiety disorders, 264269
in psychiatric care settings, 268269
substance use disorders, 621625
suicidal behavior, 498500
Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) projects, 622625
Seasonal affective disorder, 9
Seattle Social Development Project, 559b
Selective mutism
in DSM-5, xxi, 192
maintenance of gains, 243
treatment, 219t, 223
in younger children, 222
Selective prevention programs
for anxiety disorders, 272273
definition, 72
for suicidal behavior, 508514
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
for anxiety disorders, 210, 456
for bulimia nervosa, 322
and depression after exposure to child abuse, 24
for generalized anxiety disorder, 225226
for major depressive disorder, 56
in adults, 56
in children and adolescents, 52, 5960
with substance use disorder, 455456
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 235236
for panic disorder, 230, 231
for post-traumatic stress disorder, 238, 242
for separation anxiety disorder, 227
suicidal ideation and, 5960, 527530
Selegiline transdermal system, 60
Self-control, positive youth development and, 550, 554
Self-harm
antidepressants and, 60
depression, 54
Self-image and self-esteem programs, 359361
Seligman program for prevention of depression, 7778
Sensory gating in schizophrenia, 114, 129130
Separation, depression and, 22
Separation anxiety disorder
comorbidities, 197t, 198
description of, 192
in DSM-5, xxi, 192
genetics and, 209210
signs and symptoms of, 194t
treatment, 219t, 226227, 243
Septal-hippocampal system in anxiety disorders, 217
Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial, 57
Serotonin
in anorexia nervosa, 321
in anxiety disorders, 217
in binge-eating disorder, 346
in bulimia nervosa, 342343
impulsive behavior and, 383
in suicidal behavior, 490
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors. SeeSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Sertraline
for generalized anxiety disorder, 224
for major depressive disorder
in adults, 56
in children and adolescents, 59, 6061
with substance use disorder, 455
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 236237
for panic disorder, 247
for post-traumatic stress disorder, 238, 242, 248
for social anxiety disorder, 243
Service delivery systems for substance use disorders, 620631
future of, 628629
lack of, 626627
quality of, 627628
staff credentialing, 628
summary of, 631
Sex differences. SeeGender differences
(p. 886) Sex hormones, adolescent behavior and, 119120
Sexual abuse
anorexia nervosa and, 341
bulimia nervosa and, 345
cognitive-behavioral therapy, response to, 51
post-traumatic stress disorder and, 239240
suicidal behavior and, 491492
Sexual assault, depression and, 24
Sexual behaviors, high-risk, alcohol-related, 411
Sexual orientation, suicidal behavior and, 491492, 495, 513514, 524
Short stature in anorexia nervosa, 308
Shyness, 256
Sibling influences in alcohol use disorders, 414
Signs of Suicide (SOS) program, 501
Skeletal abnormalities in eating disorders, 306t
Skills, Opportunities, and Recognition program, 559b
Skills training for suicide prevention, 502503
Skin abnormalities in eating disorders, 306t
Sleep, Internet addiction and, 594
Slim body ideal
anorexia nervosa and, 339340
bulimia nervosa and, 344345
Smoking
age of purchase, 470
anxiety disorders and, 260261
cessation
behavioral therapy, 437
pharmacotherapy for, 449
research, 448
clinical aspects of, 416421
communication of risks and nicotine dependence, 417419
determinants of, 420
e-cigarettes, 448449
epidemic of, 389
genetics and, 385, 420
mass media prevention campaigns for, 468469
price interventions for, 469
socioenvironmental factors and, 420421
trends in, xxii, 419420, 420f, 637
Social anxiety disorder. See alsoSelective mutism
in children and adolescents, 220221
description of, 192, 195
eating disorders and, 302, 303, 340, 345
Internet addiction for coping with, 589
rating scales for, 266
signs and symptoms of, 194t
treatment, 219223, 219t
in adults, 218219, 222
in children and adolescents, 221222
maintenance of gains, 243
management of partial response and nonresponse to, 246
in schools, 222
Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised, 267
Social barriers to care, 352353
Social cognitive functioning in anorexia nervosa, 337
Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children, 267
Social rhythm therapy, interpersonal therapy with, for bipolar disorder, 62
Social skills
deficits
depression and, 2627
Internet addiction and, 589590
schizophrenia and, 170, 177
as protective factor in suicide, 495
training
for major depressive disorder, 53
for schizophrenia, 138139
for suicidal behavior, 502503
Social support
anxiety disorders and, 263264
Internet addiction and, 588589, 594
Societal factors in alcohol use disorders, 413
Socioeconomic status. See alsoPoverty
anorexia nervosa and, 340341, 351
bipolar disorder and, 35
depression and, 28, 7475
Socioenvironmental factors in smoking, 420421
Sociotropy, depression and, 2425
SoCRATES (Study of Cognitive Reality Alignment Therapy in Early Schizophrenia), 137
SOS (Signs of Suicide) program, 501
Span of apprehension, schizophrenia and, 170, 171f
Speedballing, 396
Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale, 266
Spheroidal Oral Drug Absorption System (MPH-SODAS), 454
Sports participation
anorexia nervosa and, 341342
substance use disorder and, 384
Stacked Deck gambling prevention program, 583t
Stature, short, in anorexia nervosa, 308
Steps to Prevent Firearms Injury Program (STOP), 512
Stigma of mental illness, 600606
anxiety prevention programs and, 278279
in community attitudes, 601
consequences of, 600
factors contributing to, 601603
(p. 887)
programs for reduction of, 605606
reducing, 603605
Stimulant abuse, 397400, 400t
alcohol and, 400
clinical aspects, 397400, 400t
treatment, 451452
STOP (Steps to Prevent Firearms Injury Program), 512
Stranger fear, absence of, schizophrenia and, 170
Strengthening Families Program, 471
Streptococcal prophylaxis for PANDAS, 237
Stress
anxiety disorders and, 216217
brain substrates, 216217
drug addiction and, 375
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity and, 4041
Internet addiction and, 593594
major depressive disorder and, 2225, 40
prepartum exposure to, 23
suicidal behavior and, 493
Stress-diathesis model of depression, 2022
Stress disorder
acute, 270
Striatal-prefrontal circuitry in schizophrenia, 121122
Striatum and motor dysfunction in schizophrenia, 107
Stroop task, 201202
Study of Cognitive Reality Alignment Therapy in Early Schizophrenia (SoCRATES), 137
Subjective well-being, positive youth development and, 551553
Substance use. See also specific name of substance
abuse versus dependence, xxi, 394400
data sources, 389391
depression and, 73
drug testing programs, 467468
epidemics of, 386391
multiple agents, 428429
parental substance use and, 429
prevalence and trends, 392393f, 400406, 408409
rates of, 637
Substance use disorders. See also specific name of substance
in animal models
biological research based on, 373374, 374f
of conditioned drug effects, 376
of drug reward, 374375
anxiety disorders and, 192, 198, 261
brain executive inhibitory circuitry defects, 377
brain reward center dysregulation, 376
allostasis and, 376
in animal models, 373376, 374f
imaging studies, 379382
pharmacotherapy for, 446
as chronic condition, 629630
clinical aspects of, 394426
alcohol and, 406416, 408t, 409410f
club drugs and, 426
cocaine/stimulants and, 397400, 400t
“ecstasy” (MDMA) and, 422
GHB and, 424
hallucinogens and, 424425
heroin/opioids and, 394397, 396t
inhalants and, 422424
marijuana and, 400406, 405f
PCP and, 425426
rohypnol and, 424
tobacco and, 416421
comorbidities
anxiety disorders, 456
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 453454
binge-eating disorder, 348
bipolar disorder, 3839, 455
data sources, 389391
depression, 17, 52, 455456
eating disorders, 302, 303, 345
Internet addiction, 589
special considerations, 456458
treatment, 429, 442443, 452456
detoxification, 446448
developmental theories of, 462466
drug-related cues and, 380382
early interventions for, 621, 625626
epidemiology of, 386391
genetics and, 382386, 383f, 463464
Internet addiction for coping with, 588589
neuroadaptations for, 376
neurobiology of addiction and, xxii, 372382, 374f, 378f
pharmacotherapy, 444457
abstinence and relapse prevention, 448
comorbidity and, 452457
detoxification, 446448
to reduce drug reward and craving, 446
prevention programs for, xxiixxiii, 466473
community environmental interventions, 470
environmental universal interventions, 468470
family-focused interventions, 470472, 471f
future directions and challenges, 473475
genetics knowledge, applying, 472473
indicated, 472
(p. 888)
model, summaries and reviews, 473475
multilevel, 473
school-based universal interventions, 466468
selective, 470471
theoretical and conceptual models, 460, 461f
psychosocial therapy, 430444
assessment issues, 441442
comorbidity and, 442443
disease model approaches, 440
evaluation studies, 430433
inpatient approaches, 430433, 443
motivational approaches, 439440
multisystem approaches, 435436
outpatient approaches, 432433
process research and mechanisms of action, 440441
randomized clinical trials, 433434
research agenda, 478479
risk factors and protective factors for, 460462
schizophrenia and, 101
screening for, 621625
barriers to, 623624
future of, 624625
in healthcare settings, 622
in schools, 622623
suicide and, 54, 488489
treatment, 428457
access to, 620
acute versus chronic care, 621
obstacles, 428429
service delivery systems, 620631
future of, 628629
lack of, 626627
quality of, 627628
staff credentialing, 628
summary of, 631
support groups for, 614615
trends in adolescents Seeking, 392393f
vulnerability to
in adolescents, 376378, 378f
D2 dopamine receptors and, 379380
withdrawal, 375
treatment, 376
Suicidal ideation
antidepressants and, 5960, 526530
depression and, 5455
gambling and, 574, 577
Suicide and suicidal behavior, xxiii
alcohol abuse and, 411
anorexia nervosa and, 304
etiology of, 488496
firearms availability and, 494
gender differences in, 485
normalization of, 493
prevention programs for
ecological and comprehensive approaches, 503505
emergency department, 517519
evaluation studies, 538539
firearms restriction, 510512
gatekeeper training programs, 500502
indicated, 516531
in juvenile justice systems, 512513
LGBT youth and, 513514
Native American youth and, 508509
overview, 496
pharmacotherapy, 526531
posthospitalization, 519520
posthospitalization programs, 519520
psychotherapy and psychosocial therapy, 520525
research agenda, 534540
school-based programs for suicidal students, 516517
screening programs, 498500
skills training, 502503
suicide awareness and education, 498505
universal, 498505
youth exposed to suicide and, 509510
protective factors for, 494495
racial/ethnic differences in, 485
rates of, 484485, 484485f, 635, 637
risk factors for, 488494
availability of means, 494495
behavioral and personality factors, 489
biological factors, 489490
contagion, 492493, 509510
depression, 54
family environment, 490492
genetic factors, 489490
negative life events, 490492
previous suicidal behavior, 489
psychopathology, 488489
sexual orientation, 491492
social-behavioral skills, 495
substance abuse, 488489
schizophrenia and, 150
scope and demographics of, 484485f
substance abuse and, 488
summary of knowledge about, 534535
treatment programs
emergency department, 517519
pharmacological, 526531
posthospitalization, 519520
psychotherapy and psychosocial therapy, 5556, 520525
violence exposure and, 75
(p. 889) Surgeon General’s report on mental health, 72
Surveys. See also specific surveys
comorbidities, 17, 32, 389391
Susceptibility genes
in schizophrenia
and adolescence, 129
identification, 127128
in substance use disorders, 385


Teasing, binge-eating disorder and, 348
Teen Health2000 Study
bipolar disorder and, 33, 34t
depression and, 15t, 16
overview, 5t
Telephone help lines, 600
Television. See alsoMass media
adolescent viewing time, 603
for reducing stigma of mental illness, 604605
Temperament. SeePersonality
Temporal-frontal circuitry in schizophrenia, 121122
Test Anxiety Scale for Children, 268
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 401
Therapeutic community for substance use disorders, 429
Thinness, societal emphasis on, 339340, 344345, 349351
Threat, amygdala response to, 205206
Threat bias in anxiety disorders
attentional, 201202
interpretative, 202203
Time to Change (TTC) program, 605
TIPs (Treatment and Intervention in Psychosis) project, 135136
Tobacco. SeeSmoking
Tolerance
alcohol, 407
cannabis, 403
marijuana, 403
Topiramate for bulimia nervosa, 323
TORDIA (Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents) study, 52, 61
Training. See alsoPsychoeducation
evidence-based practice
identification of pediatric mental health conditions, 613, 617
technology use for, 613614
on identification of substance use disorder, 625
of school staff, 628, 634
social skills
for major depressive disorder, 53
for schizophrenia, 138139
suicidal behavior, gatekeeper training programs, 500502
Transgender people, 491492, 495, 513514
Tranylcypromine for major depressive disorder, 58
Trauma, stress after. SeePost-traumatic stress disorder
Trauma exposure, anxiety and, 262263
Treatment and Intervention in Psychosis (TIPs) project, 135136
Treatment of Adolescent Depression Study (TADS), 51, 54, 59, 9192
Treatment of mental health disorders. See also specific disorders
definition, 72
effectiveness of, 72
impact of stigmatization on, 601603
insufficiency of, 634635
minor consent for, 630631
online, 615
research developments in, xxii
Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study, 52, 61
Trevor Project, 513514
Tricyclic antidepressants
for generalized anxiety disorder, 224, 225
for major depressive disorder in adults, 57
for panic disorder, 230
Trifluoperazine for schizophrenia, 146t, 152t
Trihexyphenidyl for schizophrenia, 148t
Triiodothyronine for major depressive disorder, 58
Triple-P (Positive Parenting Program), 473
TTC (Time to Change) program, 605
Twelve-Step Minnesota model, 440
Twin studies
in bipolar disorder, 34
in schizophrenia, 125
in substance use disorders, 384385


Universal prevention programs
for anxiety disorders, 273274
definition, 72
for eating disorders, 354356
for major depressive disorder, 78
for substance use disorders, 466467
for suicide, 498505
University of Illinois, suicide attempter treatment programs of, 525


Varenicline, 449
Venlafaxine
for generalized anxiety disorder, 22, 226
for major depressive disorder, 52, 56, 58, 6061
for suicidal behavior, 527, 530
(p. 890) Verbal memory deficit in children of schizophrenic parents, 170171
Video game addiction. SeeInternet addiction
Vietnam War, drug use and, 388
Violence, exposure to
anxiety and, 262263
depression and, 75
post-traumatic stress disorder and, 75, 238239
Vitamin D supplementation, in anorexia nervosa, 311
Vomiting in bulimia nervosa, 292, 309310
Vortioxetine for major depressive disorder, 57


Wanna Bet? gambling prevention program, 583t
Web-based interventions. SeeInternet interventions/surveys
Webinars for evidence-based practice, 614
Weight-bearing exercise in anorexia nervosa, 311
Weight gain
fear of, as criterion for anorexia nervosa, 291
inappropriate behaviors to prevent, as criterion for bulimia nervosa, 292
Weight loss. See alsoDieting
binge-eating disorder, 323
as criterion for anorexia nervosa, 291
Weight restoration for eating disorders, 312, 322
Well-being, positive youth development and, 551553
White matter volume
developmental changes, 109111, 110f
in schizophrenia, 109112
Workforce expansion, 617, 624
World Health Organization, 349, 617


Youth development
applications, 546547
bio-ecological approach, 546
problem-centered approach, 546547
Youth Gambling: An Awareness and Prevention Workshop, 583t
Youth Making Choices gambling prevention program, 583t
Youth-Nominated Support Team (YST) for suicide attempters, 519520
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, eating disorders and, 301
Youth Suicide Prevention and Intervention Program, 504


Zero-tolerance policies, 622623
Zinc supplementation for anorexia nervosa, 322
Ziprasidone for bipolar disorder, 64t, 65
Zuni Life Skills Curriculum, 508