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(p. liii) Note on the Compilation, Structure, and Contents of the Collected Works 

(p. liii) Note on the Compilation, Structure, and Contents of the Collected Works

Robert Adès

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date: 22 April 2018

Compiling the Edited Works

These collected writings constitute nearly all the texts that Donald W. Winnicott composed during his lifetime. The majority have already been published in collections compiled by Winnicott or by editors appointed by Clare Winnicott and, after her death, by the Winnicott Trust. The Trust’s vision for a complete collection was to present an authoritative reference text with new editorial input to be made available in print and online in order to best disseminate Winnicott’s work and to meet the requirements of a modern global audience of practitioners, scholars and general readers.

While the project for a complete works of Winnicott has been in gestation for some three decades,1 the origin of the current editorial team dates from 2009, when a management board, headed by Amal Treacher Kabesh, was established to manage its progress. A detailed framework for ordering the volumes following a largely thematic arrangement within a chronological outline was begun by editor Elisabeth Young-Bruehl. She selected for inclusion a significant number of new letters, some of which were uncovered by Megan Wolff at the Winnicott archive of the Institute for the History of Psychiatry’s Oskar Diethlem Library at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York. After Young-Bruehl’s untimely death in 2011, her assistant Clay Pearn, who had already catalogued the new and existing texts and bibliographies and converted them into documents, and her plans, were received by the new editors in London appointed by the Winnicott Trust: Lesley Caldwell and Helen Taylor Robinson. I was engaged by the editors at this time to assess the contents of the Winnicott archive in the Wellcome Library in London and to provide general assistance in research and planning.

In the long process of managing, cataloguing and incorporating the unpublished with the existing work, it became clear that a new approach would be (p. liv) needed in order to marshal the array of materials. The contract for publication with Oxford University Press and its unbounded Oxford Clinical Psychology online platform on which the Collected Works was to be released provided the opportunity to develop an alternative system. The General Editors, together with the editorial team, decided that the Collected Works would best be served by following a principle of inclusion and by adhering to a strictly chronological structure.

Arrangement of the Collected Works


An important feature of Winnicott’s writing is its diversity. His work demonstrates an intellectual breadth that ranges across multiple disciplines and forms of expression, providing a rich literary experience for the reader but actively resisting configuration into categories ‘which give a tidy look to the textbooks’ (‘Autism’ [CW 7:3:8]). An unabridged chronology, in the spirit of a catalogue raisonné, presents the diversity of his work and the range of his professional involvement without post-facto classification. Laying out his life’s productivity in a continuous scroll aspires to provide the reader with a ‘formlessness which is what the material is like before it is patterned and cut and shaped and put together’ (‘Dreaming, Fantasying, Living’ [CW 9:3:6]).

Chronological succession must be reckoned by certain selected criteria, and as much of Winnicott’s work was written or presented to an audience many years before being published, the first known date of presentation or authorship—rather than the date of first publication—reflects Winnicott’s life and his thought with the greatest veracity. Thus the Collected Works is more than the sum of his theoretical writings, it is also ‘about the analyst, about the analyst’s work’ (‘Primitive Emotional Development’ [CW 2:7:8]).

Collections Currently in Print

Much of Winnicott’s work remains in circulation in the form of anthologies gathered together at different stages of his career, some in his own chosen arrangement, some posthumously collated by editors. The format of these books itself points to the ways in which he and his editors conceived of his writings at that time—a process that was ongoing and incomplete at his death.2 Readers looking to experience his writings as they were first produced are encouraged to continue to consult these works, and users of the Collected Works online platform can access the structure of the original books via the back catalogue in this volume [CW 12:1:3], along with the reference lists from four books prepared by Winnicott [CW 12:1:4].

(p. lv) His first mature specialist book, Collected Papers, was subtitled Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis, and the linkage of fields expressed in the title could be applied to the Collected Works in toto: it, too, is a collected papers ranging not just from paediatrics to psychoanalysis, but through war evacuation to social work, through rheumatic fever to delinquency research, through nursery education to leucotomy, through paediatrics to probation work and through psychoanalysis to parenting.

The Collected Works: ‘About the Analyst, About the Analyst’s Work’

Winnicott engaged deeply with all the fields with which he came into contact, living by his remark that one might ‘shed this useless layer of knowledge that is intertwined with words and settle down to involvement’ (‘Environmental Health in Infancy’ [CW 8:1:6]). This thread of participation runs throughout his working life, from the young house officer racing one of his child outpatients onto the roof,3 to the departmental head and Society President. His work across fields and through multiple forms of communication, as presented in the Collected Works, demonstrates his commitment to empirical observation and scientific research, a fearless and straight-talking dissent (with sufficient capacity for diplomatic compromise to enable him to spend much of his life leading one clinical department or another), a pragmatic dedication to public service and public debate, and a certain hands-on eccentricity which can perhaps best be summed up—just as he described his own training analyst, James Strachey—as that of a distinctly ‘English analyst’ (‘Obituary of James Strachey’ [CW 8:1:14]).

In the discussion of his paper ‘Changing Patterns’ [CW 12:3:3] (audio file), Winnicott stated ‘I am not a bit religious myself … as far as I know’. Brought up in a free-thinking household and having attended a Methodist school, Winnicott’s personality—well-married with Methodism—tended towards pragmatic dissent from the canon. In 1969, Winnicott underlined this propensity when he wrote to Ian Roger that he saw himself as ‘a natural Lollard’,4 an apposite term which captures the coherence between his life and his work. The Lollards, heretics of the late medieval period, were supporters of John Wycliffe, a proponent of translating the Bible into English vernacular for the benefit of the uneducated population who could otherwise not participate in the revelations of the church. The range of audiences to whom Winnicott lectured, and the sheer volume of his clinical experience as demonstrated in the Collected Works (he is believed to have seen 60,000 mother-and-baby couples in his career as a paediatrician5), is a testament to his own commitment to work in the field and to engage directly with the population at large.

As a theoretician, Winnicott rethought many of the concepts and clinical techniques adhered to by the established training groups of British analytical (p. lvi) society. He was the leading figure of the ‘Independent’ group, an internationally influential thinker and yet, being possessed, like the Lollards, of ‘a militant incapacity to accept dogma’,6 did not found a school in his name or indeed accept the commonplace depiction that he was an ‘Independent’.

Perhaps he also knew that the word ‘lollard’ meant mumbler—an insult signifying the indistinct or uneducated sound of plain-speaking English. As his producer at the BBC, Isa Benzie, wrote in an internal BBC memo on Winnicott’s very particular voice: ‘He has on the one hand a desperately bad heart and uses very little voice, and on the other has a life-long professional habit of talking to mentally sick small children in a very, very quiet way’.7

The chronological Collected Works enables the reader to meet this natural lollard, reflecting the unity of Winnicott the plain-speaking public broadcaster, Winnicott the anti-dogmatic theoretician whose output of technical papers grew to be of lasting global influence,8 Winnicott the pillar of the child and psychiatric health community and public-minded protestor of health policy, and Winnicott the bustling local practitioner—the difficult but devoted doctor ‘who comes down every week and doesn’t like social workers and leaves things in a muddle’.9

Contents of the Collected Works


The Collected Works includes journal articles, professional lectures, transcriptions of talks and public broadcasts, reviews and obituaries, as well as personal items, fiction, short notes, poetry and personal correspondence. Amongst the works that are already cornerstones of Winnicott’s contributions to professional fields, these Collected Works incorporate items which cast him in a more personal light: from his childhood letters from boarding school, doodles or flashes of inspiration jotted down on scraps of paper, unconsolidated fictions and reminiscences, to the letters and notes written in the days before his death. Sculpted and polished works are presented alongside everyday letters, notes and items included in the spirit of his doodle ‘Frustrated sculpture (wanted to be an ordinary thing)’ [CW 12:5:1]. They provide a human dimension to his work, and are presented here as much for the historian, biographer, enthusiast or casual reader as for the training or practising analyst, therapist or paediatrician.

Complementary Material

The Collected Works provides new indices for each volume, extensive cross-references and editorial annotations, and this final volume comprises a variety (p. lvii) of appendices and a complete index for the edition as a whole. Each article is accompanied by a headnote composed of its bibliographical entry, its original provenance and any additional comments relating to its formulation.

Some accompanying material is included where it is pertinent to the context. Correspondence from Thomas Stapleton [CW 4:3:23], Michael Fordham [CW 9:2:2] and the magistrate Roger North [CW 2:6:1], and Robert Graves’s letter to The Times [CW 7:3:1] are provided in footnotes to Winnicott’s own letters. His complete letter on autism [CW 7:1:10] is provided alongside the shortened version as printed in the Observer which proved so controversial. On several occasions, the reported discussions of Winnicott’s papers are included to help to frame the reception of his work (see the upcoming section ‘Winnicott in the Third Person’).

Books Republished

One consequence of the chronological arrangement of the Collected Works is the redistribution of existing volumes of Winnicott’s collected papers, with the exception of three complete books prepared by Winnicott and two books published posthumously, all five of which are retained in their original form.

Clinical Notes on Disorders of Childhood, Winnicott’s first book, written in 1931, may be found in its entirety in Volume 1, Part 3 [CW 1:3].

Holding and Interpretation, the account of the final six months of an analysis undertaken between 1953 and 1955 and first published in a heavily annotated form in 1972, and in the current edition edited by Masud Khan in 1986, has been placed in Volume 4, Part 4 [CW 4:4:1]. ‘Withdrawal and Regression’, an account of the same patient and included by Khan as the appendix to that book in 1986, is located chronologically as it was first composed, in 1954 [CW 4:3:29].

Winnicott’s working life did not end with his death which, in the Collected Works, arrives at the end of Volume 9, Part 3. Volumes 10 and 11 contain three books prepared by Winnicott, and published posthumously.

Therapeutic Consultations in Child Psychiatry [CW 10] is a collection of case studies, sessions, interviews and consultations with children (and one mother) over a ten-year period, compiled by Winnicott and published just after his death in 1971. While some ten of the case studies were published earlier than 1971, this complete work is reproduced whole, retaining the total cumulative meaning he intended it to convey (see Armellini [CW 10:Introduction]).

The Piggle [CW 11:2] and Human Nature [CW 11:1], a pair of unfinished works completed and published as whole books after his death, are presented unchanged in Volume 11. Winnicott’s analysis of Gabrielle—the ‘piggle’—lasted from 1964 to 1966 (occurring alongside the material of Volume 7), and was completed several years before he showed it to the eventual editor, Ishak Ramzy, a young analyst (p. lviii) from the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas. Ramzy used his correspondence with Winnicott from 1969 to guide him in producing the final book, published in 1977, while leaving undone what he considered could have been completed only by Winnicott (Ramzy, Editor’s Foreword [CW 11:2]).

Human Nature was largely written in the summer of 1954, originally with the purpose of supplying Winnicott’s social work and mental health students at the University of London with the notes on human nature that they were unable to take during his lectures (see Clare Winnicott’s ‘Preface to Human Nature’ [CW 11:1]). Winnicott continued to revise and review this collection of notes up until his death; it was eventually published in 1988 together with two synopses giving clues as to its construction—one from 1954 and a second from 1967.

While the essays in Playing and Reality, like all of Winnicott’s other collections, have been redistributed according to chronology, five of the eleven chapters nevertheless remain grouped together in Part 3 of Volume 9—the end of Winnicott’s living work—demonstrating the incredible productivity of his final weeks and months.


Included here are transcriptions of recordings, some new and some previously published, which are also available in audio format at [CW 12:3:3]. Previously published transcribed items which would normally have received some editorial intervention have not been altered, while new transcriptions have been published verbatim. An historically important document—the evidence given by Donald Winnicott and Clare Britton to the Curtis Committee [CW 2:7:9]—has been edited, leaving only Winnicott’s contributions. The complete transcript is kept in the UK National Archives.


As the head of several hospital and clinical departments, Winnicott composed memoranda as evidence for government or institutional committees (see [CW 2:5:3], [CW 2:7:6], [CW 5:1:4], [CW 5:5:4] and [CW 6:2:3]). In the case of the ‘Memorandum on Homosexuality and the Law’ [CW 5:1:4], the input from his colleague Thomas Stapleton is also published [CW 4:3:23], illustrating the balance which Winnicott struck between writing as himself and writing on behalf of his department.


Volume 1, Part 1, essentially included for the biographer, historian and enthusiast, is composed exclusively of Winnicott’s childhood letters, school essays and notes and articles he wrote while a medical student.

(p. lix) These early writings shed a light across his life as much as they cast the shadow of his survival of World War I, which broke out when he was seventeen. In ‘An Allotted Spanner in the Works’ [CW 7:3:37], written in 1967 when he had, according to the psalmist, reached his ‘allotted span’ of threescore years and ten,10 Winnicott wrote:

If I have got anywhere, or contributed anything to the world, then the word I includes friends and contemporaries who were killed in the two great wars, who died of cancer or by accident, or who got into trouble and never caught up again.

He returned to this sentiment in ‘Not Less than Everything’ [CW 9:3:11], ‘Individuation’ [CW 9:2:10] and, bluntly and without pathos, in a letter to his close friend and colleague John Davis in the final weeks before his death, writing ‘I ought to have been killed in World War I, like my friends’ [CW 9:3:1]. The early works of Volume 1 open a window for us onto these friends and onto this boy who was not killed with them: of those schoolmates shown in the portrait taken in 1914 [CW 1:Gallery:4]—the first readers of Winnicott’s earliest surviving writings, published in Volume 1: (‘Smith’ [CW 1:1:3], ‘The Night Attack’ [CW 1:1:6] and ‘The Best Remedy’ [CW 1:1:8])—F. D. Adam (seated far right) and A. M. Rees (sitting at Winnicott’s left shoulder), would be killed in 1918, as would his other classmates, not pictured: William Strang Maclay (d. 1915), Edward Barcroft George (d. 1916) and Leslie Gordon Atkins (d. 1918).11 While the school friends of Winnicott’s youth, along with a generation of young men, gave up their lives in World War I, Winnicott would go on to give his life to changing society in a different way.

Challenges to Compiling the Collected Works

Undated Works

Works about which there is only speculation regarding the date of their authorship have been placed at the end of Volume 9, in Part 4.

Introductions for Books Not Reproduced in Their Original Form

The Preface and Acknowledgements to Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis [CW 5:3:32], the Introduction to The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment [CW 7:2:24] and the Preface and Acknowledgements of the The Family and Individual Development [CW 7:2:25] (and of this book’s Italian translation [CW 7:3:27]) are presented in the years in which they were written. The Introduction to Playing and Reality is printed immediately before (p. lx) the group of chapters from that book which remain clustered together in 1971 [CW 9:3:4]. The Introduction to The Child, the Family and the Outside World [CW 7:1:17] includes, as a footnote, the Preface to one of the two early incarnations of this book, The Child and the Family (1957); its companion The Child and the Outside World (1957) did not include a preface or introduction by Winnicott.

While the books for which these various forewords were prepared have been dismantled in the Collected Works, they remain accessible in situ online—along with any dedications and reference lists—through the appendix of Winnicott’s back catalogue [CW 12:1:3].


Winnicott and his publishers often reused his material and, within a chronological arrangement, it becomes possible to appreciate why and how Winnicott reassessed his own work.

‘Winnicott’s Wisdom’, the name given to a series of four papers printed in a popular parenting magazine in 196712 [CW 8:1:13, CW 8:1:16, CW 8:1:17, CW 8:1:22], are reproductions of versions of probably Winnicott’s first works for the general public: his essays in Getting to Know Your Baby, written more than twenty years previously. Their re-emergence sheds new light on Winnicott’s position in the ongoing social debate surrounding child care in the 1960s—not least, perhaps, by demonstrating that, in 1944, he was twenty years ahead of his time.

‘Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena’ is presented in all four versions [CW 3:6:6, CW 4:2:21, CW 5:4:24, CW 9:3:5], each with an extensive headnote discussing its repetition.

‘Adolescence: Struggling Through the Doldrums’ [CW 6:2:4] was revised for two audiences. Originally given as a lecture to London County Council’s children’s department, it was first printed in the education journal New Era in Home and School. Although Winnicott revised the article for publication in the popular magazine New Society as ‘Struggling Through the Doldrums’ [CW 6:4:7], he returned to the more specialised version when he included it two years later in his 1965 book The Family and Individual Development. Rather than provide a series of annotations and analysis of the differences within the texts, the editors have elected to print both versions in full.

‘On the Split-off Male and Female Elements’ (1966) [CW 7:3:2], originally a lecture to the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS) given in 1966, was not published until it was included as part of ‘Creativity and Its Origins’ [CW 9:3:7] in Playing and Reality in 1971. The 1966 lecture alone was published in Psychoanalytic Explorations (1989), together with two examples of clinical material from the same patient taken in 1959 [CW 5:5:26] and 1963 (p. lxi) [CW 6:4:20], and Winnicott’s answers to comments on the lecture [CW 9:1:30], written in 1968–69 and first published in Psychoanalytic Forum in 1972. In the Collected Works, these five items are presented chronologically rather than grouped together thematically: the two clinical notes from 1959 and 1963, the original lecture from 1966, Winnicott’s answers to comments to the paper (including new material printed in the Collected Works for the first time) in the late 1960s and the culminating paper ‘Creativity and Its Origins’ in 1971 [CW 9:3:7]. Accordingly, the original lecture appears, in media res, twice. Each of the five chapters includes the relevant cross-references, and the thematic arrangement as published in Psychoanalytic Explorations (1989) can be found in the back catalogue [CW 12:1:3].

‘Envy: A Male Patient at the End of his Analysis’ [CW 6:2:21] is the name given by Winnicott to a short extract of case material from 1961 included by the editors of Psychoanalytic Explorations as part of the chapter ‘The Beginnings of a Formulation of an Appreciation and Criticism of Klein’s Envy Statement’ [CW 6:3:7], where the following paragraph was omitted:

In making this statement I have lost nearly all my objection to Mrs Klein’s concept. I am left, however, with the main thing that annoyed me in her presentation of her ideas at Geneva, and also in her book. This is that without mentioning the effect of the mother’s failure which brings the infant’s intolerance of the assault on his omnipotence to the fore, Mrs Klein jumps over into a statement about inherited aggression. I believe that in practice what she was meeting and calling inherited aggression may well have been the urge to break free from the mother who is reluctant to give up her role. My objection, therefore, has dwindled to something scientific, relatively unimportant, but nevertheless something which I do now after a long period of re-consideration continue to think is a fault in Mrs Klein’s presentation.

This important statement has been reinstated in the original case note and presented here as a free-standing chapter [CW 6:2:21]. However, the case material without this paragraph remains a part of ‘The Beginnings of a Formulation of an Appreciation and Criticism of Klein’s Envy Statement’ [CW 6:3:7] as it was originally published in 1989. The same material is therefore printed twice, once as a free-standing case note and again as the extract of a case study used in a paper on Kleinian theory.

Cases in Therapeutic Consultations in Child Psychiatry

The repetition and reworking of material occurred extensively in the case of Winnicott’s many lectures and articles on therapeutic consultations given during the 1960s. In five of the original publications of these consultations, (p. lxii) Winnicott wrote fresh précis of the principle of his therapeutic consultation technique. When twenty-one of these cases were collected together to form the volume Therapeutic Consultations these sections were removed from the individual papers and assimilated into the three introductory sections in the book. This alternative expository material has been presented in Volume 10 in the form of appendices.

Furthermore, the two case studies from Therapeutic Consultations that were also published in another Winnicott collection appear in the Collected Works in both forms:

  • ‘Dissociation Revealed in a Therapeutic Consultation’ [CW 7:2:21], first published in 1965 and reprinted in 1984 in Deprivation and Delinquency, is the original version of the case study of ‘Ada’ [CW 10:3:13].

  • ‘The Value of the Therapeutic Consultation’ was written in 1965 without any accompanying case material, but was first published in 1968 along with the full text of the case study ‘Ashton’. The case of ‘Ashton’ alone was then published in Therapeutic Consultations in 1971. The original 1965 paper—without ‘Ashton’—was posthumously published in Psychoanalytic Explorations in 1989, rounding off a palindromic publishing history. The Collected Works presents the original essay from 1965 (as published in 1989) [CW 7:2:22] and the case study ‘Ashton’ (as part of Therapeutic Consultations) [CW 10:2:9].

Winnicott in the Third Person

The editors chose on the whole to include items which refer to Winnicott in the third person: reports of his lectures, discussions of his papers, and abstracts of his articles. While the extent to which Winnicott himself contributed some of these as synopses or abstracts cannot be known, they form first-hand accounts of papers and lectures which might otherwise have been lost and give an invaluable insight into the reception and handling of his work in its own time.

Several abstracts of Winnicott’s articles or lectures are presented for the first time in the Collected Works.13 Two lecture abstracts have been presented as free-standing chapters: ‘Enuresis’, given to the Royal Society of Medicine [CW 1:2:17], and ‘The Wearing of Masks in the Nursing of Premature and Older Infants’, given to the British Paediatric Association [CW 2:5:9], which includes Winnicott’s first use of the word ‘unintegration’. Two further abstracts are published in Volume 2 as footnotes to a relevant surviving paper on the same subject from the same era: ‘The Value of Breastfeeding’ (psychological)—a lecture given to the British Paediatric Association—is printed in ‘Breast Feeding’ [CW 2:7:12], and ‘Observations of Infant Behaviour During (p. lxiii) Routine Clinical Examination’ (in support of his memorandum) (1943) is published in the footnotes to ‘Observation of Infants in a Set Situation’ [CW 2:3:6] as an example of his attempts to disseminate the material of this important paper. Winnicott’s contribution to the discussion of Auden’s The Difficult Child was published as a third-person report [CW 1:4:4], and an additional announcement of Winnicott’s contribution to the discussion has been given as a footnote. The report of his paper ‘Neurosis in the Child’ appears as a footnote in the Introduction to Volume 1 (Ken Robinson) [CW 1:Introduction], where it is quoted at length.

Several early medical papers in Volume 1 Part 2 ([CW 1:2:2], [CW 1:2:3], [CW 1:2:4], [CW 1:2:7], [CW 1:2:9], [CW 1:2:15], [CW 1:2:17], [CW 1:2:19], [CW 1:2:20] and [CW 1:4:18]), include peer discussion of Winnicott’s paper along with his replies (or a report of them), and these papers and their discussions have been reproduced in full. There are also a few examples of parenthetical asides relating an unprinted component of Winnicott’s presentation (such as [CW 3:3:8]), which have also been retained.

A report of a talk which Winnicott gave on the ‘Psychological Aspects of Birching’ [CW 2:6:3] has been included as one of very few comments he made on this topic.14 The minutes of the BPAS (16 February 1944) state that this lecture, given to the Reform League, was reported inaccurately in the News Chronicle and that, in response, Winnicott distributed a corrected version to the members of the Society.15 The manuscript printed here is held in the archive of Roger Money-Kyrle in the Wellcome Library, London. It is not possible to determine whether they are the notes distributed by Winnicott to members (most likely) or Money-Kyrle’s own notes on Winnicott’s lecture. In either case, the document serves as the only known account of an otherwise lost statement on corporal punishment.

The typed notes for the discussion of Winnicott’s paper ‘The Birth Trauma’ [CW 3:4:11] included within the same document both Winnicott’s responses in the first person and a third-person report of the discussion. It is reproduced here in full.

‘First Interview with Child May Start Resumption of Maturation’ [CW 8:2:27], an anonymously-written report in an American psychiatry magazine of a lecture given a few days prior to ‘The Use of an Object’ [CW 8:2:28], reproduces largely in his own words one of the many lectures and seminars Winnicott gave during the 1960s on his therapeutic consultation method—in this case, that of the patient described in ‘Hesta’ [CW 10:2:11]. The reception of Winnicott’s work during this trip is a point of continuing debate, and this article and the subsequent discussion by Dr J. C. Hirschberg of the Menninger Clinic of Topeka, Kansas, represent two of the few first-hand examples of the response to a presentation of his therapeutic consultation technique. The account, and its discussion, have therefore been included to add to the context of the surrounding works and to this period.

(p. lxiv) The Collected Works in Print and Online

Oxford Clinical Psychology online brings Winnicott into contact with the professions his work was originally intended for: doctors, psychiatrists and paediatricians, as well as parents, teachers, social workers and psychoanalysts. Online, all works are fully cross-referenced and searchable, providing a powerful tool for tracing Winnicott’s work thematically. It is hoped that the user can encounter Winnicott’s work in its chronological form, charting his development in a linear progress, while also being provided with the means to view his writing in its original formation and to search by theme or keyword or navigate by means of the extensive cross-references and annotations.


Perhaps most excitingly, the audio resource which Winnicott made his own within the psychoanalytic community—the radio broadcast—has been made free to all without subscription at [CW 12:3:3]. In addition to his broadcasts, a few fascinating private recordings of Winnicott lecturing or talking are now available, bringing his words urgently to life for the first time in half a century (see [CW 12:Introduction]). The audio section is introduced with a podcast by Anne Karpf on Winnicott’s relationship to broadcasting and his first BBC producers.


Images can be downloaded as PowerPoint slides. Although the print edition is produced in black and white, colour images—when available—are reproduced online.


As a technical necessity, footnotes in the online edition are presented slightly differently from those in print. In both the printed and the online editions, all editorial annotations are given as footnotes marked with italisized Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, v), whereas Winnicott’s annotations are presented as endnotes marked with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). With no pagination online, all annotations are presented as endnotes, but the Roman/Arabic numeric distinction is retained.

In its original publication, The Piggle included Winnicott’s commentary in the form of marginalia. Unfortunately, due to the constraints of online layout, such a presentation proved impossible to reproduce and, in this edition, both online and in print, the commentary has been given as footnotes using capitalised Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V).

(p. lxv) Notes


Anon. (1968). First interview with child may start resumption of maturation. [CW 8:2:27]Find this resource:

Armellini, M. (2017). Introduction to Volume 10, The collected works of D. W. Winnicott. New York: Oxford University Press. [CW 10:Introduction]Find this resource:

Benzie, I. (3 May 1960). Memorandum to Janet Quigley et al. (BBC R CONT1, D. W. Winnicott, File 1b, 1960–1962). BBC Written Archives, Caversham, UK.Find this resource:

Bollas, C. (2017). Foreword to Volume 1, The collected works of D. W. Winnicott. New York: Oxford University Press. [CW 1:FM]Find this resource:

Graves, R. (1966). Letter to the Times, Thursday January 13, 1966, p. 11. Issue 56528. [also CW 7:3:1]Find this resource:

Kahr, B. (1996). D. W. Winnicott: A biographical portrait. London: Karnac.Find this resource:

Kahr, B. (2016). Tea with Winnicott. London: Karnac.Find this resource:

Kantner, J. (2004). Face to face with children: The life and work of Clare Winnicott (pp. 97–111). London: Karnac.Find this resource:

Khan, M. (1975). Introduction, in Collected papers: Through paediatrics to psychoanalysis, 2nd ed. London: Hogarth.Find this resource:

(p. lxvi) King, P., & Steiner, R. (1991). The Freud-Klein controversies 1941–45. The New Library of Psychoanalysis. London/New York: Tavistock/Routledge.Find this resource:

Neve, M. (1992). Clare Winnicott talks to Michael Neve. Free Associations, 3:167–184.Find this resource:

Phillips, A. (1988). Winnicott. London: Fontana Paperbacks.Find this resource:

Ramzy, I. (1977). Editor’s Foreword, The Piggle. [CW 11:2]Find this resource:

Robinson, K. (2017). Introduction to Volume 1, The collected works of D. W. Winnicott. New York: Oxford University Press. [CW 1:Introduction]Find this resource:

Winnicott C. (1982). D. W. Winnicott: His life and work. In J. Kanter (Ed.), Face to face with children: The life and work of Clare Winnicott (p. 264). London: Karnac.Find this resource:

Winnicott, C. (1988). Preface, Human Nature. [CW 11:1]Find this resource:

Winnicott, C. (1992). Interview with Michael Neve, 1983. Free Associations, 3, 167–184.Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1913). Smith. [CW 1:1:3]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1914). The best remedy. [CW 1:1:8]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1914). The night attack. [CW 1:1:6]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1926). Case for diagnosis (? infantile hemiplegia) [CW 1:2:3]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1926). Case for diagnosis (? poliomyelitis with some spasticity) [CW 1:2:2]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1926). Two cases of post-encephalitic hypernœa. [CW 1:2:4]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1928). Encephalitis after measles and chicken-pox. [CW 1:2:9]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1928). Facial nerve paralysis. [CW 1:2:7]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1929). Symptoms suggesting post-encephalitis. [CW 1:2:15]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1930). Enuresis (abstract) [1929]. [CW 1:2:17]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1930). Pathological sleeping. [CW 1:2:19]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1931). Active heart disease. [CW 1:3:8]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1931). Hæmoptysis: Case for diagnosis. [CW 1:2:20]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1934). Discussion: Auden The difficult child. [CW 1:4:4]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1938). Skin changes in relation to emotional disorder. [CW 1:4:18]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1941). The observation of infants in a set situation. [CW 2:3:6]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1944). The wearing of masks in the nursing of premature and older infants (abstract) [1943]. [CW 2:5:9]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1945). Primitive emotional development. [CW 2:7:8]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1948). Disorders of childhood. [CW 3:3:8]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1949). Hate in the countertransference [1947]. [CW 3:2:1]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1953). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena. [CW 4:2:21]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1955). Withdrawal and regression [1954]. [CW 4:3:29]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1957). Breast feeding [1945]. [CW 2:7:12]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1958). Collected papers: Through paediatrics to psycho-analysis. London: Tavistock.Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1958). Preface and acknowledgements to Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis. [CW 5:3:32]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1958). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena. [CW 5:4:24]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1962). Adolescence: Struggling through the doldrums [1961]. [CW 6:2:4]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1963). Struggling through the doldrums. [CW 6:4:7]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1964). Introduction to The child, the family and the outside world. [CW 7:1:17]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1964, 25 October). Letter to the Observer, All of mother. [CW 7:1:10] (p. lxvii) Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1965). The family and individual development. London: Tavistock.Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1965). Introduction to The maturational processes facilitating environment. [CW 7:2:24]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1965). Preface and acknowledgements to the The family and individual development [CW 7:2:25]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1966). Dissociation revealed in a therapeutic consultation. [CW 7:2:21]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1967). Winnicott’s wisdom. [CW 8:1:13, CW 8:1:16, CW 8:1:17, CW 8:1:22]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1968). The value of the therapeutic consultation [1965]. [CW 7:2:22]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1969). Changing patterns in young people (audio). [CW 12:3:3]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1969). Obituary: James Strachey. [CW 8:1:14]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1969). The use of an object [1968]. [CW 8:2:28]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). ‘Ada aet 8 years’. [CW 10:3:13]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). ‘Ashton aet 12 years’. [CW 10:2:9]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). Creativity and its origins. [CW 9:3:7]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). Dreaming, fantasying, living. [CW 9:3:6]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). ‘Hesta aet 16 years’. [CW 10:2:11]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). Introduction to Playing and reality. [CW 9:3:4]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). Therapeutic consultations in child psychiatry. [CW 10]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena. [CW 9:3:5]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1972). Holding and interpretation: Fragment of an analysis [1955]. [CW 4:4:1]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1977). The piggle [1964–1966]. [CW 11:2]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1984). Deprivation and delinquency. C. Winnicott, R. Shepherd & M. Davis (Eds.). London: Tavistock.Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1987). Environmental health in infancy [1967]. [CW 8:1:6]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1988). Human nature. [CW 11:1]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). The beginnings of a formulation of an appreciation and criticism of Klein’s envy statement [1962]. [CW 6:3:7]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). Clinical material on the theme of a male patient’s exploitation of his female self [1959]. [CW 5:5:26]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). Envy: A male patient at the end of his analysis [1961]. [CW 6:2:21]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). Further clinical material on the theme of a male patient’s exploitation of his female self [1963]. [CW 6:4:20]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). Individuation [1970]. [CW 9:2:10]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). Not less than everything [ca. 1968–71]. [CW 9:3:11]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). On the split-off male and female elements [1966]. [CW 7:3:2]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). Psychoanalytic explorations. C. Winnicott, R. Shepherd & M. Davis (Eds.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (1996). Autism [1966]. [CW 7:3:8]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2003). Preface to the Italian translation of The family and individual development [1966]. [CW 7:3:27]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). An allotted spanner in the works [ca. 1966–67]. [CW 7:3:37]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Answers to comments on ‘The split-off male and female elements’ [1968–69]. [CW 9:1:30]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Evidence given to the home office committee on children’s homes (the Curtis Report) [1945]. [CW 2:7:9] (p. lxviii) Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Frustrated sculpture (wanted to be an ordinary thing). [CW 12:5:1]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Memorandum on corporal punishment [1945]. [CW 2:7:6]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Memorandum on Gisburne House [1955]. [CW 5:5:4]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Memorandum on organisational aspects of child care at Paddington Green Children’s Hospital [1961]. [CW 6:2:3]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Memorandum from Paddington Green Children’s Hospital Psychology Department on homosexuality and the law [1955]. [CW 5:1:4]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Memorandum on ‘The relationship between clinical paediatrics and child psychology’ [1943]. [CW 2:5:3]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Notes on the discussion held on Dr Winnicott’s paper ‘The birth trauma’ [1949]. [CW 3:4:11]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Psychological aspects of birching [1944]. [CW. 2:6:3]Find this resource:

Winnicott, D. W. (2017). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena [1951]. [CW 3:6:6]Find this resource:


1. See Christopher Bollas’s Foreword to the Collected Works, Vol. 1 [CW 1:FM].

2. Winnicott planned numerous different arrangements of his essays for books which were never ultimately realized [CW 12:1:5].

3. ‘I feel the heart thumping away, but as the boy is a healthy boy I run with him to the hospital roof’. Clinical Notes on Disorders of Childhood, ‘Active Heart Disease’ [CW 1:3:8].

4. Reported in Winnicott, A. Phillips (1988) p. 38. Also in Kahr, B. (2016), p. 31.

5. Quoted from Ishak Ramzy’s foreword to The Piggle [CW 11:2] and Clare Winnicott’s interview with Michael Neve, 1983, in Free Associations, 3:167–184, 1992.

6. Masud Khan, ‘Introduction to Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis’, Second Ed. 1975.

7. Isa Benzie, Memorandum to Janet Quigley et al., 3 May 1960.

8. In 2016, the two most viewed journal articles (and three of the top five, and six of the top fifteen) on the internationally used Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing platform are by Winnicott: ‘Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena’ [CW 4:2:21] and ‘Hate in the Countertransference’ [CW 3:2:1]. Among the most viewed books on the site—a list dominated by the volumes of Freud’s Standard Edition—three of the nine most viewed are by Winnicott.

10. That is, 70 years of age. Psalms 90:10.

11. In Kahr, B. (1996), Appendix A.

12. The magazine describes Winnicott as ‘one of the world’s great acknowledged experts on the mother–baby relationship …’, ‘… reading D. W. Winnicott is a supreme experience for a mother-to-be…’.

13. These should not be confused with the three abstracts which Winnicott wrote of the works of other authors, all of which appear in Volume 1, Part 4.

14. See also his evidence given for the Curtis Report [CW 2:7:9].

15. King and Steiner, The Freud-Klein Controversies (1991), p. 730.