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(p. 14) Expectancies 

(p. 14) Expectancies
Chapter:
(p. 14) Expectancies
Author(s):

Andrew MacLeod

DOI:
10.1093/med:psych/9780198725046.003.0002
Page of

date: 18 November 2017

Heightened expectancies for negative events and reduced expectancies for positive events happening to oneself are characteristic of emotional disorders. Chapter 2 reviews evidence relating to these two distinctive kinds of difficulties with thinking about the future. The evidence points to anxiety being primarily related to elevated judgements about the future likelihood of negative events and depression to reduced expectancies for positive events. Anticipation describes a more active form of looking forward to or not looking forward to personally-relevant future experiences. Again, anxiety relates to increased negative anticipation only, whereas depression and hopelessness are characterized by a reduction in having things to look forward to, in the absence of any increase in negative anticipation, a pattern that is found in those who have suicidal thoughts and feelings. Mechanisms underlying by future likelihood judgements are discussed.

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