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(p. 425) Index 

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Subscriber: null; date: 16 January 2019

Any references to ‘PD’ stand for ‘persecutory delusions’, while references to ‘ToM’ stand for ‘Theory of Mind’.

ABC (activating events, beliefs and consequences) 396, 404, 418, 419, 421
aberrant-salience hypothesis 125, 163, 164, 228, 243
Abu-Akel, A. 99, 208, 210, 211
Abushua’leh, K. 99
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) 166167, 332, 344
actual self 155156
actual–ideal/actual–ought discrepancies, depression and anxiety 156
Addad, M. 100
addiction, incentive salience theory 308
Adolphs, R. 176, 177
affective processes 128
AIHQ (Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire) 185
Alzheimer’s disease 226, 230
Ames, F. 268
amphetamines 243, 244, 248
amygdala 209
Andreasson, 270
anomalous experiences 128, 283287
distorted voice, in self-monitoring paradigm 287
PET and dopaminergic system 284287
salience 285
antipsychotic medications
effectiveness of 312313
first-generation (FGAs) see FGAs (first-generation antipsychotics)
first-person account 10
intermittent treatment regimes 315316
non-schizophrenic conditions 318
pragmatic trials 314315
and salience 286
second-generation (SGAs) see SGAs (second-generation antipsychotics)
side-effects 316318
therapeutic effects 244
anxiety
see also depression
actual–ought discrepancies 155
as factor in PDs 8182
and persecutory ideation 123124
self and others, negative beliefs about 131
social, and paranoia 386387
suspicious thoughts 130
Appelbaum, P. 76
Arboleda-Florez, J. 92
Arendt, M. 273
ARMS (at-risk mental state) 290, 291, 292, 390
artists, and writers 4
ASQ (Attributional Style Questionnaire) 127, 148, 149, 154, 158, 185
ASRC (Attributional Self-Representation Cycle) 183
Astrup, C. 111
attentional and attributional biases 9798, 131, 133, 289290
attenuated paranoia (case study)
see also paranoia
‘at-risk’ client with 378382
background/assessment information 378379
formulation 379380, 381
interventions 380, 382
other problems 389
problem list/therapy goals 379
attributional bias, and violence 9899
Attributional Self-Representation Cycle (ASRC) 183
attributional style and paranoia 150153, 183186
Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) 127, 148, 149, 154, 158, 185
attributional theory, and PDs 73
Auerbach, A. 416
Aziz, M.A. 94


‘bad me’ paranoia
depressive cognitive bias (PIT) 156
dopamine-blocking drugs 166
and ‘poor me’ paranoia
deservedness concept 127
nature of distinction 145
rare nature in psychosis 144
self-esteem issues 157, 162
Baddeley, A.D. 223
Bailey, A.L. 211
BDI (binocular depth inversion) 269
Beck, A.T. 158, 393
as founder of CBT 329
Beck Anxiety Inventory 34, 396
(p. 426) Beck Depression Inventory 34, 396
behavioural reattribution strategies
other problems 389390
outcomes 390
safety behaviours and behavioural experiments 387389
belief inflexibility, and delusions 126, 129
Beliefs about Paranoia Scale 34
Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test (BLERT) 188
Bentall, R. P.
on attributional theory 7374, 127, 183, 229
Persecution and Deservedness Scale (PaDS) 4951
persecutory ideation 33
schizophrenia, prognosis of PDs in 82
on threat-anticipation 144
benzamides, radiolabelled 246
Berridge, K. C. 165
BINREG procedure, STATA statistical programme 58
bipolar disorder
see also depression
antipsychotic medications 319320
causal attributions and paranoid beliefs 146147
paranoid delusions 143
Theory of Mind, poor 212
Birchwood, M. J. 126, 332
bisexuality, personal experience of 5, 6, 7, 17
Bjorkly, S. 100
Blackwood, N. J. 84, 289
BLERT (Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test) 188
BLIPS (brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms) 376
Bonta, J. 93
‘The Borderline’ (between sanity and madness) 11
BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale)
CBT approach 332
general measures 28
NEMESIS study 56, 57, 65
paranoia and social cognition 188
pharmacological management 311
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) see BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale)
British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity 124125
Brüne, M. 205, 206, 209210
Buchanan, A. 96
bullying 6
Burns, D. 416
Burns, J. K. 205


CAARMS (Comprehensive Assessments for At Risk Mental States) 390
Camberwell Family Interview 356
Camberwell Walk Study 133, 134
Candido, C. L. 157
cannabis 267276
acute effects on psychosis 267270
causing PDs 274276
chronic use, effects 270274
clinical samples 273274
cohort studies 270273
Cantor-Graae, E. 125
CAPE questionnaire 275
Capgras delusion 224, 225
Carlsson, A. 251
case studies 355360
single case, defending 34
Caspi, A. 275276
catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene 275, 276
CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness) 314, 315, 316, 317, 318
Cattell, R. B. 6
causal attributions and paranoid beliefs 146155
CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy)
assessment 395396
childhood trauma, paranoia arising from 406409
development for psychosis 329330
different inter-related paranoid beliefs 402406
engagement 394395
first-person account 369372
formulation 396397
group trials 343
individuals 334337
meta-analyses and reviews 345
randomized controlled trials see randomized controlled trials
schema-focused, for persecutory and grandiose delusional system 398402
for suspiciousness and paranoia 375391
work with PDs 397398
Chadwick, P.D.J. 126, 396
on ‘poor me’/’bad me’ paranoia see under ‘poor me’ paranoia
Chapman, J.P. 84
Chapman, L.J. 84
Chapman, R.K. 126
Charlton, B.G. 214
Chicago Follow-up Study, longitudinal data from 74
childhood trauma, paranoia arising from 68
assessment 406407
formulation 408
presenting complaint 406
therapy 408409
(p. 427) chlorpromazine (neuroleptic medication) 14, 244
Christchurch Health & Development Study 272
CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) 55, 56, 59
Claridge, G. 2627
Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) 314, 315, 316, 317, 318
CNP (cognitive neuropsychiatry) 224226, 281, 282
cognitive biases, imaging 287290
cognitive neuropsychological factors 221232
clinical neuropsychology of delusions 221223
delusions, cognitive neuropsychiatry 224226
two-deficit cognitive neuropsychological account of PDs 227228, 231
cognitive behavioural therapy see CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy)
Combs, D. R. 186
co-morbid disorders 390, 394
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 55, 56, 59
Comprehensive Assessments for At Risk Mental States (CAARMS) 390
compulsive behaviour 291
COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene 275, 276
confirmation bias 15
Connell, P.H. 242
Conrad, K. 9
CONSORT group statement 333
conspiracy thoughts 27
continuum of paranoia 2627, 144, 177179, 188
control groups, study designs 135
Corcoran, R. 212, 213
Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia (CUtLASS 1 and 2) 314315
craclopride 246
Crick, N. R. 185
cross-dressing, personal experience of 5, 6, 7, 14
Cuesta, M.J. 307
CUtLASS 1 and 2 (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia) 314315


D1 receptors 245
D2 receptors 244, 245, 246
baseline occupancy by DA 249250
blockade of 255
and schizophrenia 308
D3 receptors 245
D4 receptors 245246
Danish Psychiatric Central Register, cannabis study 273
DAT (DA transporters) 246, 247
Davis, J.M. 312313
defensive nature of PDs 148
de-institutionalization 91
delusional disorders 105116
see also delusions
aetiological factors and treatment 113114
clinical recognition of delusions 106107
delusional content 109110
description 107108
distress 132133
experimental participants, obtaining 115
features of illness 108109
formation of delusions 129131
future research 133136, 135
litigious paranoid states 111112
maintenance of delusions 131132
persecutory delusional presentations in 110111
research implications 114115
shared (folie á deux) 112113
delusions
affect, role in 290291
and boredom 16
clinical 61, 65
clinical recognition of 106107
cognitive neuropsychiatry 224226
delusional misidentification syndrome 95
distress 132133
formation of 129131
frequency over time, in schizophrenia 76
general measures 2829
hypochondriacal 110
maintenance of 131132
multi-dimensional nature 24, 25
non-persecutory, in schizophrenia 7678, 7980
organic or functional 222
passivity 93
sub-classifications 293
visual scanning abnormalities shown by sufferers 187
dementia 227
Dennett, D.C. 213
depression
actual-ideal discrepancies leading to 155
antipsychotic medications 319
attributional style 154
causal attributions and paranoid beliefs 146147
co-morbid 157
delusion distress 132133
paranoid delusions 143
paranoid ideation 309
self and others, negative beliefs about 131
(p. 428) Details of Threat Questionnaire 34
Detera-Wadleigh, S.D. 310
discrimination, Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study 57
DLPFC (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) 251
Dodge, K.A. 185
domain-general skills, ToM 213214
Doody, G.A. 212
DOPA (dopamine precursor) 308
dopamine (DA) 239256
and cannabis use 274
cortical regulation of subcortical DA transmission 250253
and direct reporting of aversive stimuli 164
evidence, review 241250
imaging evidence 246250
meso-limbo-cortical system 163
neuronal firing 274
pharmacological evidence 241244
post-mortem evidence 245246
schizophrenia and endogenous sensitization 253255
stratial amphetamine-induced DA release 247
stratial DOPA decarboxylase activity 247
tissue DA and HVA 245
transmission, overview 240241
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) 251
Drake, R. 74
dronabinol (synthetic THC) 268, 269
drug treatment see medications
Drury, V.M. 181, 211
DSM-III-R (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn, revised) 55, 58, 59, 97, 108
DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn, Text Revision) 105, 106, 110, 185, 387
D’Souza, D.C. 269, 270
Dunedin Birth Cohort 275
Dysfunctional Attitude Scale 158


EDIE (Early Detection, Intervention and Evaluation) study 377
Edinburgh High-Risk study 273
EE (expressed emotion) 82
Ellinwood, E.H. 242
Ellis, A. 415
Ellis, Hadyn 224
emotional processing, and violence 9798
Emotional Stroop Task 178, 186
EPS (extrapyramidal symptoms) 244
Estroff, S.E. 95
expressed emotion (EE) 82
external events, delusion formation 130
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) 244
eye tracking methodology, visual appraisal using 190, 191
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Psychoticism sub-scale 31


Face Emotion Identification Test (FEIT) 188
family intervention, in psychosis 351360
caregiving and symptoms of psychosis 352353
case examples 355360
communication, facilitating 358
evidence-based 354
psycho-education sessions 355, 359
Favrat, B. 268
FEIT (Face Emotion Identification Test) 188
Fenigstein, A. 3031, 32, 4041
Ferdinand, R.F. 272
fetishism 14
FGAs (first-generation antipsychotics)
effectiveness of 312, 313
selection of 320
side-effects 316, 317
trials 314315
first-person account, CBT
background 370371
contexts 369370
coping with paranoia 370372
dealing with paranoia 372373
meaning of ‘paranoia’ 371372
personal weaknesses 371
triggers 371
FIs (family interventions) see family intervention, in psychosis
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) 281, 287, 289
folie á deux (shared delusional disorder) 112113
Forgas, J. P. 154
formulations
attenuated paranoia (case study) 379380, 381
CBT approach 396397
childhood trauma, paranoia arising from 408
paranoid beliefs, inter-related 403404
‘poor me’ paranoia 413415
schema-focused CBT 400
Fowler, D. 124, 290
Freckelton, L. 112
Freeman, D.
on anxiety 290
on emotional processing 97
on first-hand accounts 370
operational criteria, paranoia 144
persecutory ideation
definitions/multi-dimensional nature 2425
Green et al. Paranoid Thoughts Scales (G-PTS) 3132, 4546
Paranoia Scale 30
(p. 429) Paranoia/Suspiciousness Questionnaire (PSQ) 4244
psychological factors 122
specific measures 3334
State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) 52
schizophrenia, prognosis of PDs in 74
on social cognition 189190
on violence and PDs 95
Fresnan, A. 100
Freud, Sigmund 73, 74
Frith, C.D., on ToM 217
definitions and origins of ToM, and PDs 208
meta-representational model 205, 207
remediation of ToM 214
and schizophrenia 128
social cognition 180, 182
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 281, 287, 289


GABA (neurotransmitter) 252
GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) 396
Gardner, W. 97
Garety, P.A. 30, 31
on anxiety 290
on ‘bad me’ delusions 156
‘basic cognitive dysfunction’ theory 283, 286
operational criteria, paranoia 144
persecutory ideation 2425
Garrod, S. 216
Gaudiano, B.A. 345
Geddes, J. 312
genetic basis of PDs 309310
Gilbert, D.T. 184
Glick, M. 74, 412
Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) 396
globalness-specificity dimension 147
God, belief in 12, 15
G-PTS (Green et al. Paranoid Thoughts Scales) 3132, 34, 4546
Gracie, A. 125
grandiose beliefs 394
schema-focused CBT, underlying trauma 398402
Grech, A.J. 273
Green, C. 3132, 4546
Green, M.J. 98
Green et al. Paranoid Thoughts Scales (G-PTS) 3132, 34, 4546
Greig, T.C. 128


hallucinations
auditory 281
command 93
delusions, co-occurring with 227
logistic regression analysis 58
predisposition to 125
prevalence rate 53
haloperidol (antipsychotic medication) 14
Happé, F.G.E. 208
Harrington, L. 180181, 206, 209210
Heads, T.C. 100
Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) 396
hemiplegia 225
Hemsley, D.R. 285
Henquet, C. 272, 275
Herz, M.I. 315
Higgins, E.T. 157
Hodgins, S. 96
Hoffman, R.E. 84
homophobia 6, 13
homosexuality, and paranoia 73
HoNOS (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale) 396
Hopper, Edward 4
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 158
HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis 68, 82


IAT (Implicit Association Test) 158
IBZM (iodobenzamide) 246, 247, 248
ICD-10 (World Health Organization) 105, 110
id 13
imaging 281294
anomalous experiences 283287
cognitive biases 287290
and cognitive model 283290
dopamine (DA) 246250
future directions 293294
and psychopathology 281283
and role of affect in delusions 290291
and transition to psychosis 291293
Implicit Association Test (IAT) 158
incentive salience theory, addiction 308
institutionalization 9192
Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ) 127, 149, 185, 186
internal feelings, delusion formation 129130
internality-externality dimension 147
interview methods, limitations 2728
IPSAQ (Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire) 127, 149, 185, 186
Isbell, H. 268


Janssen, I. 182
Jaspers, K. 106, 110
JTC (jumping-to-conclusions) thinking and dopamine transmission 286, 287
first-person account 16
imaging and cognitive biases 288
reasoning 126
verbal reattribution strategies 382
Junginger, J. 94


Kahlo, Frida 4
Kaiser, S.L. 215216
Kapur, S.
on addiction 308
and anomalous experiences 284
on dopamine and psychosis 285
on salience 125, 163, 228, 242243, 274
Kegeles, L.S. 253
Kelly, George 4
Kendler, K.S. 26, 108
Kennedy, H.G. 97
Kerr, N. 212
Khalid, A. 208
Kinderman, P. 127
Koethe, D. 269
Kraepelin, Emil 108
Kuipers, E. 3132, 4546, 354
Kullgren, G. 95


Langdon, R. 215, 216
Laruelle, M. 285, 308
LeDoux, J. 209
Leucht, S. 310
Levenson, H. 147
Levenstein, Klein and Pollock Scale 75
Leweke, F.M. 269
Lieberman, J.A. 243, 315
lifetime prevalence of PDs, associated factors 6061
Link, B.G. 93, 96
locus of control, multi-dimensional questionnaire measure 147
logistic regression analysis 58


Maher, B.A. 125, 129, 284, 286
MAM (methylazoxymethanol acetate) 253
manic depression see bipolar disorder
Marder, S.R. 316
Marjoram, D. 182
Martin, J.A. 149150
Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule 399
McCabe, R. 128, 215, 216
McGlashan, T.H. 377
McGorry, P.D. 377
McGrath, J.J. 133
McKay, R. 3233, 4748, 158
McMahon, F.J. 310
McNiel, D. 99
medications 305320
antipsychotic see antipsychotic medications
clinical implications 319320
effectiveness of 310312
mechanisms of delusion generation 318319
neuroleptic 14, 114
schizophrenia 76
systematic reviews 311
Melges, F.T. 269
Melo, S. 155, 413
memory biases 131132
Menon, M. 165
mesocortical system, DA transmission 240
meso-limbo-cortical dopamine system 163, 240
Met allele 275
metabolic syndrome, antipsychotics 317318
meta-cognition 383385
methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) 253
mindfulness 415, 420, 421
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 30, 31
mirrored-self misidentification/mirror agnosia 225
misidentification, mirrored-self 225
Mitchell, J.P. 216, 217
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) 30, 31
Mojtabai, R. 94
Moore, R. 212
Moreau, J.J. 267
Moritz, S. 158
Morrison, A.P. 34, 377, 378, 383
Mortimer, A.M. 223
motivational salience 274
Murphy, D. 99
Murphy, Karl 351, 369
Murray, Pete 8
mysticism 13


NAA (N-acetyl-aspartate) 251
N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) 251
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) 311
NBI (needs-based intervention) 377
Neale, J.M. 156
needs-based intervention (NBI) 377
NEMESIS (Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study) 5368
analyses 5759
and cannabis use 271
delusion outcome, assessment 57
discrimination 57
incidence/lifetime prevalence of PDs 6061
instruments 5557
limitations, methodological 6667
methods 5459
neuroticism 57
persistence/transition to clinical delusions 61, 65
(p. 431) prevalence and incidence 5960
risk factors 6566
results 5965
risk factors for prevalence, incidence and persistence 66
risk mechanism 6768
risk set 5859
sample 5455
STATA statistical package, analysis with 57, 58
T0 persecutory delusions, assessment 5657
trauma 57
urbanicity exposure 57
Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study see NEMESIS (Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study)
neuroleptic medication 14, 114
neuroticism 57, 290
NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence) 311
nigro-striatal system, DA transmission 240
NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) 251, 252
N-methyl spiperone 246
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) 251, 252
Nordstrom, A. 95


obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) 290, 291
Oltmanns, T.F. 24
‘The Organisation’ (group of people out to humiliate others) 9, 13
other–self 155
ought self 155


P300 ERP component 226
PaDS (Persecution and Deservedness Scale) 33, 4951, 145
Panksepp, J. 163164
PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) see Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)
Papageorigiou, P. 226
paranoia
attenuated, ‘at-risk’ client with (case study) 378382
and attributional style 150153
causal attributions and paranoid beliefs 146155
childhood trauma, arising from 406409
complexity of paranoid picture 121122
continuum of 2627, 144, 177179, 188
coping with, first-person account 370372
dealing with, first-person account 372373
defence account 157
definition 175
developmental origins 165166
different inter-related paranoid beliefs 402406
longitudinal progression, paranoid beliefs 157
paranoid defence, idea of 155156
phenomenology 126127
problem of, justified suspicions 2728
psychological factors and persecutory ideation 122128
psychotic 911
build-up to 69
puzzle of 121126
‘rational’ 8
reasoning 126
and social anxiety 386387
social cognition in see social cognition
stigmatized minority groups, sufferers belonging to 5
subclinical to clinical, transition 145
treatment and recovery, personal experience 1416
Paranoia Scale 3031, 32, 4041, 178
Paranoia/Suspiciousness Questionnaire (PSQ) 31, 4244
paranoid beliefs, inter-related
assessment 402403
formulation 403404
history 402
outcome 406
presenting complaint 402
therapy 404406
paranoid consciousness, personal experience 46
paranoid thoughts 27, 123, 131
Parker, I. 3
passivity delusions 93
PDI (Peters et al. Delusionary Inventory) 29, 32, 159
Pearlson, G.D. 309
Penn, D.L. 149150, 186
Penn State Worry Questionnaire 34
Peralta, V. 307
Perec, G. 121
Persecution and Deservedness Scale (PaDS) 33, 4951, 145
persecutory ideation 269
anxiety 131
assessment 2734
associated and linked phenomena 34
definitions 24
measures 2934
misreading intentions of others, individuals with 128
multi-dimensional nature 24, 25
persecutory thought, defining 24
and psychological factors 122128
(p. 432) sub-type, persecutory ideation as 24
theory informing assessment 2327
unfounded 134
Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ) 3233, 4748
persecutory thought, defining 24, 26, 27, 33
person perception research 189
personalizing, attributional style 183184
person-based cognitive therapy 411423
internal experience, relationship to 420421
mindfulness 415, 420, 421
‘poor me’ paranoia see ‘poor me’ paranoia
and radical collaboration 417
Relationship to Internal Experience 415
relationships, building and maintaining 415418
Schemata 415, 416, 421423
Symbolic Self 415, 421423
Symptomatic Meaning 415
PET (positron emission tomography) 246, 284287, 308, 309
Peters, E.R. 156
Peters et al. Delusionary Inventory (PDI) 29, 32, 159
Peterson, C. 127, 148
PFC (prefrontal cortex) 250, 251, 252, 253
pharmacological management see medications
phenomenology 126127
Phillips, M.L. 98
phobias 290
Pickering, M.J. 216
Pickup, G.J. 182
Pietzcker, A. 315
PIQ (Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire) 3233, 4748
PIT (Pragmatic Inference Task) 156, 158
‘poor me’ paranoia
avoidance of negative beliefs about self, possible biological substrates 162165
and ‘bad me’ paranoia
deservedness concept 127
nature of distinction 145
person-based cognitive therapy 413, 414, 416417, 422
challenging exploring ‘poor me’ beliefs 418420
definitions 412
dopamine-blocking drugs 166
formulation 413415
person-based cognitive therapy 411412, 413415
and self 421423
self-esteem issues 157, 162
Popper, Karl 15
Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)
cannabis, effects of 270
and CBT approach 332
general measures 28
pharmacological treatments 311
social cognition 194
positron emission tomography 246, 284287, 308, 309
post-mortem evidence, dopamine 245246
post-test probabilities (PP) 58
PP (post-test probabilities) 58
Pragmatic Inference Task (PIT) 156, 158
prefrontal cortex (PFC) 250, 251, 252, 253
Present State Examination 29, 309
probabilistic reasoning 126
PSQ (Paranoia/Suspiciousness Questionnaire) 31, 4244
psychodynamic theory 14
psycho-education sessions 355, 359
psychological reflections 1114
psychopathology, and imaging 281283
psychosis
attenuated psychotic symptoms 376
cannabis, acute effects 267270
cognitive model 377379
family intervention 351360
interventions for individuals 376377
narrative of 318
neurobiology 163
pharmacotherapy of, biological theories 307310
prodromal phase 285, 375
psychotic episodes 15, 16, 17
symptoms, and caregiving 352353
transition to, imaging 291293
ultra-high risk of developing 376382
violence, link with 9193
psychostimulants, sensitization to 243
psychotic paranoia, personal experience of 911
build-up to 69
Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) 29, 32, 35, 396
Pycock, C.J. 253


QALY (quality adjusted life year) measure 314
queerdom 5


radical collaboration, and person-based cognitive therapy 417
Raine, A. 100
Randall, F. 21
randomized controlled trials
CBT approach 332
EDIE (Early Detection, Intervention and Evaluation) study 377
(p. 433) individual CBT plus other psychological intervention 338339
individual CBT plus TAU, and TAU control 334337
at follow-up 340341
outcomes 332333
study design, choice of control group 331
study populations 330331
summary of outcomes 333, 334
Rational Emotive Therapy 396
Rawlings, D. 31, 4244
rCBF (regional cerebral blood flow) studies 230231
RDC (Research Diagnostic Criteria) 75
reasoning biases 128
regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies 230231
Relationship to Internal Experience 415
religious faith 12
Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) 75
Rethink (formerly National Schizophrenia Fellowship) 355
risk of psychosis, high
attenuated psychotic symptoms 376
behavioural reattribution strategies 387390
cognitive model of psychosis 377379
co-morbid disorders 390
interventions for individuals 376377
social anxiety and paranoia 386387
suspiciousness and paranoia, CBT for 375391
ultra-high risk of developing
psychosis 376382
verbal reattribution strategies 382386
Robinson, T.E. 165
Rogers, Carl 4, 415
Romney, D.M. 157
Roncone, R. 214
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale 82, 158
Russell, T.A. 210, 211, 215, 216


SADS 75
safety behaviours 123124, 290, 387389
Safety Behaviours Questionnaire— Persecutory Beliefs (SBQ) 34
salience
aberrant-salience hypothesis 125, 163, 228, 242243
anomalous experiences 285
and antipsychotics 286
incentive salience theory, addiction 308
motivational 274
SAPS (Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms) 28, 29
Satan, belief in 12
SBQ (Safety Behaviours Questionnaire— Persecutory Beliefs) 34
Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) 28, 29
schema-focused CBT, persecutory and grandiose delusional system
assessment 398399
early sessions 399400
formulation 400
late sessions 401
middle sessions 400401
presenting complaint 398
therapy 399402
Schemata 415, 416, 421423
schizophrenia
antipsychotic medications, therapeutic effects 244
anxiety and PDs 8182
attenuated symptoms 26
and cannabis use 270, 271
DA imbalance hypothesis 250 see also dopamine (DA)
delusions, other factors involved in 8586
differentiating symptoms in 306307
and endogenous sensitization 253255
factors involved in PDs 8384
follow-up assessments 75
frequency of PDs/delusion activity over time 76
persecutory and non-persecutory delusions 83
impaired self-monitoring 86
index hospitalization 75
medications 76
and non-persecutory delusions 7678, 7980
operational definition of recovery 7576
other psychotic disorders 7879, 8485
outcomes for patients with non-persecutory delusions 7980
outcomes for patients with PDs 79
patient sample 7475
predisposition towards continual PDs, longitudinal basis 78
prognosis of PDs in 7386
as prototypical delusional condition 239
risk factors 53
select risk and protective factors, and PDs 8083
self-esteem issues and PDs 8283
social and emotion perception 187
state-or-trait-related debate 211
stress-diathesis and vulnerability model 86
trauma 394
vulnerability to PDs, patients with other types of psychotic disorders 8485
schizotypal personality disorder 26
Schizotypal Personality Scale (STA) 31
(p. 434) Schneider, U. 269
Schulze, T.G. 309310
Schurhoff, F. 310
SCIT (Social Cognition and Interaction Training) 175, 192194
emotion training 193
figuring-out situations 193
integration 193
SCL-90 scale, anxiety 81
Scoville, W.B. 242
self
actual and ideal parts of 184
negative beliefs about see self, negative beliefs about
paranoid defence, idea of 155
as process 421
self, negative beliefs about 124
anxiety and depression 131
avoidance of in ‘poor me’ paranoia, possible biological substrates 162165
long-term nature 133
self-acceptance, unconditional 415
self-esteem issues
attributional style and paranoia 151153
causal attributions and paranoid beliefs 146155
and paranoia 156162
paranoid defence, idea of 155156
‘poor me’ paranoia see ‘poor me’ paranoia
research
attributional style and paranoia 150153
clinical implications 165167
role in PDs 143167
schizophrenia patients with PDs 8283
threats to self-esteem 164165
self-monitoring, as fMRI paradigm 287
self-serving bias 289
Selten, J.-P. 125
sensitization 243, 253255
SGAs (second-generation antipsychotics)
and dopamine 244
effectiveness of 312, 313
selection of 320
side-effects 316
trials 310, 314315
side-effects, antipsychotics
cardiovascular 318
glucose level, diabetics 317
metabolic syndrome 317318
neurological 316
weight gain 317
Silver, H. 98
simulation theory 216217
single case, defending 34
single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 246, 308
social anxiety, and paranoia 386387
social cognition
attributional style 183186
definitions 175176
domains 176, 176
importance 177
and paranoia, research evidence 179191
social and emotion perception 186191
social cognitive model, illustrated 192
ToM (Theory of Mind) 180183, 288289
Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) see SCIT (Social Cognition and Interaction Training)
social isolation, paranoid thoughts 131
social risk factors (NEMESIS findings)
and incident PDs 64
other psychotic experiences 63
and PDs 62
somatoparaphrenia 225
SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) 246, 308
Spitzer, M. 28
S-REF model 383
SSPS (State Social Paranoia Scale) 3334, 52
STA (Schizotypal Personality Scale) 31
stability–instability dimension 147
Staff, R.T. 226
Startup, M. 229
Startup, S. 229
STATA statistical package 57, 58
State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) 3334, 52
state-or-trait-related debate, Theory of Mind 182, 211
Staznickas, K. 94
‘stereotypic’ delusional offending 94
stress-diathesis and vulnerability model, schizophrenia 86
suicide attempts 10
superego 13
suspiciousness and paranoia 130131, 375391
Swanson, J.W. 92, 97
Symbolic Self 415, 421423
Symptomatic Meaning 415


TAU (treatment as usual), and CBT 331, 334337
Taylor, P. 95
TCO (Threat/Control Override) symptoms 96
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 267, 268, 269
Textbook of Psychiatry (Kraepelin) 108
THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), and cannabis 267, 268, 269
Theory of Mind see ToM (Theory of Mind)
theory-theory/simulation theory 216217
Thirtalli 274
thought-control strategies, counterproductive use 133
threat, role of 96
(p. 435) threat anticipation model, PDs 121, 128133
ToM (Theory of Mind) 205217
bipolar disorder patients 212
deficits in 99, 181
definition and origins, PD context 206209
difficulties of, and PD 209211
domain-general skills 213214
emerging issues 212217
future trends 217
implicit or ‘on-line’, measuring 215216
longstanding debates 206212
resolving 211212
remediation 214215
schizophrenia, state-or-trait-related debate 211
and social cognition 180183, 288289
theory-theory/simulation theory 216217
transdiagnostic issues 212213
and violence 99
transvestism, personal experience of 57, 1315, 17
trauma
and adverse events 124125
childhood, paranoia arising from 406409
Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study 57
persecutory and grandiose delusional system linked to 398402
in schizophrenia 394
verbal reattribution strategies 385386
Trower, P. 332
on ‘poor me’ paranoia see under ‘poor me’ paranoia


urbanicity exposure, Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study 57
US National Household Survey on Drug Abuse 94


Van Os, J. 271
Vanable, P.A. 3031, 32, 4041
verbal reattribution strategies
evidential analysis and alternative explanations 382383
JTC (jumping-to-conclusions) bias, addressing 382
meta-cognitive beliefs 383385
trauma 385386
Verdoux 275
violence
attributional bias 9899
delusional beliefs 9395
early experience 100
emotional processing 9798
factors underpinning relationship 95100
and PDs 91101
psychosis, link with 9193
recidivism, meta-analysis of 93
TCO (Threat/Control Override) symptoms 96
threat, role of 96
ToM 99
visual appraisal, eye tracking methodology 190, 191
Vygotsky, L.S. 414


WAIS (Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale) 159
Walsh, E. 93
Walston, F. 210
Wason, Peter 15
Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale (WAIS) 159
Weissman, A.N. 158
Wilde, Oscar 4
Williams syndrome, social cognitive abilities 177
Wing, J.K. 207
Winters, K.C. 156
working memory (WM) 226
writers, and artists 4
Wykes, T. 182


Yesavage, J.A. 100
Young, D. 242
Yui, K. 86


Zammit 271
Zigler, E. 74, 412
Zimmer, C. 95
Zone of Proximal Development (ZoPD) 414, 415, 416, 418, 419, 420