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Pharmacological Treatment of Pediatric Irritability

Pharmacological Treatment of Pediatric Irritability  

Daniel P. Dickstein and Rachel E. Christensen

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0014
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
14 Pharmacological Treatment of Pediatric Irritability Daniel P. Dickstein and Rachel E. Christensen Introduction Irritability is the most common reason children are brought for psychiatric evaluation (>40% of emergency room and >20% of outpatient visits) ( ; ; ; ). Irritability is an explicit diagnostic criterion or associated symptom for multiple diagnoses found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), including a manic episode in bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive episode in children, generalized anxiety disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and the new DSM-5 disruptive
Irritability Development from Middle Childhood Through AdolescenceTrajectories, Concurrent Conditions, and Outcomes

Irritability Development from Middle Childhood Through Adolescence: Trajectories, Concurrent Conditions, and Outcomes  

Cynthia Kiefer and Jillian Lee Wiggins

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0006
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
6 Irritability Development from Middle Childhood Through Adolescence Trajectories, Concurrent Conditions, and Outcomes Cynthia Kiefer and Jillian Lee Wiggins Introduction Irritability is a symptom dimension characterized by angry mood and temper outbursts and conceptualized as a low threshold for anger ( ). Irritability cuts across multiple psychiatric disorders, including depressive, anxiety, and disruptive behavior disorders, as well as typical development ( ; ). Indeed, severe, chronic irritability is the cardinal symptom of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), which was added to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5;
Neural Findings in Pediatric Irritability

Neural Findings in Pediatric Irritability  

Emily Hirsch and Leslie Hulvershorn

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0009
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
9 Neural Findings in Pediatric Irritability Emily Hirsch and Leslie Hulvershorn We begin this chapter by reviewing theoretical models of irritability and experimental approaches that have been used to study neural mechanisms of pediatric irritability, with a focus on normal versus dysfunctional reward and threat processing. We then critically review task-based neuroimaging research that has been conducted on typically developing youth, children with significant chronic irritability, and children with disorders associated with elevated irritability such as disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and mood disorders. Finally, we review structural and functional connectivity methods that have
Genetics of Pediatric Irritability

Genetics of Pediatric Irritability  

Meridith L. Eastman, Ashlee A. Moore, and Roxann Roberson-Nay

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0008
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
8 Genetics of Pediatric Irritability Meridith L. Eastman , Ashlee A. Moore , and Roxann Roberson-Nay This chapter provides an overview of behavioral and molecular genetics of pediatric irritability. Irritability is a transdiagnostic dimensional construct that lends itself well to exploration with multiple methods across numerous levels of analysis in human and model organisms. Given its transdiagnostic nature, irritability has been explored in the context of numerous psychiatric phenotypes, but whether the genetic mechanisms of irritability in the context of these diverse psychopathologies differs, is not known. To untangle this question, molecular genetic studies of
Behavioral and Psychophysiological Investigations of Irritability

Behavioral and Psychophysiological Investigations of Irritability  

Mariah DeSerisy and Christen M. Deveney

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0004
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
4 Behavioral and Psychophysiological Investigations of Irritability Mariah DeSerisy and Christen M. Deveney Clinically significant irritability is typically defined as excessive anger and/or a low threshold for frustration that manifests in temper outbursts/rages that are frequent, severe, and disproportionate to the child’s developmental stage ( ; ; ). Irritability is associated with marked impairment in both treatment-seeking and community samples. Children referred for severe temper outbursts experience higher rates of inpatient hospitalization, diagnostic comorbidity, and greater deficits in emotional and behavioral control when compared to children referred for nonirritable symptoms ( ; ). In
Irritability in Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Irritability in Mood and Anxiety Disorders  

Pablo Vidal-Ribas Belil and Argyris Stringaris

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0012
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
12 Irritability in Mood and Anxiety Disorders Pablo Vidal-Ribas Belil and Argyris Stringaris Introduction Irritability is part of the diagnostic criteria of every pediatric mood disorder described in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), including all types of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and, most recently, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), which is the new clinical category for severe chronic irritability (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). In addition, anxiety disorders are also associated with irritable mood, with some of them, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Emotion Regulation in Severe Irritability and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

Emotion Regulation in Severe Irritability and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder  

Katharina Kircanski, Ellen Leibenluft, and Melissa A. Brotman

in Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191841996
DOI: 
10.1093/med:psych/9780198765844.003.0014
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology, Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198765844
Chapter 14 Emotion Regulation in Severe Irritability and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
Meditation and physical health

Meditation and physical health  

Linda E. Carlson

in The Psychology of Meditation: Research and Practice

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191820427
DOI: 
10.1093/med:psych/9780199688906.003.0009
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688906
Chapter 9 Meditation and physical health
Mastery of Your Anxiety and Worry: Workbook

Mastery of Your Anxiety and Worry: Workbook (2 ed.)  

Michelle G. Craske and David H. Barlow

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2006
Series: 
Treatments That Work
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780190275051
DOI: 
10.1093/med:psych/9780195300017.001.0001
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology, Psychosocial Interventions and Psychotherapy
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780195300017
Disorder: 
Anxiety Disorders
Second Edition Work book
Benzodiazepine Discontinuation Difficulties

Benzodiazepine Discontinuation Difficulties  

Michael W. Otto and Mark H. Pollack

in Stopping Anxiety Medication: Workbook (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2009
Series: 
Treatments That Work
Published Online: 
Apr 2015
eISBN: 
9780190241995
DOI: 
10.1093/med:psych/9780195338553.003.0003
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology, Psychosocial Interventions and Psychotherapy
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195338553
Disorder: 
Anxiety Disorders
Chapter 3 Benzodiazepine Discontinuation Difficulties
Session 5

Session 5  

Bonnie Spring

in Smoking Cessation with Weight Gain Prevention: Workbook

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2008
Series: 
Treatments That Work
Published Online: 
Jan 2015
eISBN: 
9780190230531
DOI: 
10.1093/med:psych/9780195314007.003.0007
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology, Psychosocial Interventions and Psychotherapy
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195314007
Disorder: 
Addictive and Substance Use Disorders
Chapter 7 Session 5
Ubiquitous and IntangibleThe Problem of Defining Anger

Ubiquitous and Intangible: The Problem of Defining Anger  

Raymond DiGiuseppe and Raymond Chip Tafrate

in Understanding Anger Disorders

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2006
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Nov 2015
eISBN: 
9780190261924
DOI: 
10.1093/med:psych/9780195170795.003.0002
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology, Psychopathology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195170795
Disorder: 
Anger Disorders
2 Ubiquitous and Intangible
Mastery of Your Anxiety and Worry: Therapist Guide

Mastery of Your Anxiety and Worry: Therapist Guide (2 ed.)  

Richard E. Zinbarg, Michelle G. Craske, and David H. Barlow

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2006
Series: 
Treatments That Work
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780190241872
DOI: 
10.1093/med:psych/9780195300024.001.0001
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology, Psychosocial Interventions and Psychotherapy
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780195300024
Disorder: 
Anxiety Disorders
Second Edition Therapist Guide
Measurement of Irritability in Children and Adolescents

Measurement of Irritability in Children and Adolescents  

Merelise Ametti and Robert R. Althoff

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0003
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
3 Measurement of Irritability in Children and Adolescents Merelise Ametti and Robert R. Althoff Background Irritability has been part of the official psychiatric nomenclature since it was used to describe episodes of mania in the first edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) published in 1952 ( ). Since then, it has been incorporated into the diagnostic criteria for 15 psychiatric illnesses, including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and personality disorders (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013; ). Yet, despite longevity and ubiquity, irritability has remained an ill-defined and underresearched phenomenon until relatively recently. The
Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology  

Amy Krain Roy, Melissa A. Brotman, and Ellen Leibenluft (eds)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.001.0001
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology Section I Perspectives on Assessment and Measurement Section II Developmental Considerations Section III Etiological Mechanisms Section IV Clinical Presentation Section V Treatment
Introduction

Introduction  

Amy Krain Roy, Melissa A. Brotman, and Ellen Leibenluft

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0001
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
1 Introduction Amy Krain Roy , Melissa A. Brotman , and Ellen Leibenluft According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, irritability is defined as “quick excitability to annoyance, impatience or anger” ( www.merriam-webster.com ) While young children may exhibit transient irritable mood when hungry or tired, when children present with irritability that is chronic, persistent, impairing, and greater than that of their peers, it becomes a symptom of clinical concern. This latter form of pediatric irritability is one of the most common reasons for referral for evaluation and treatment ( ; ) and is the focus of this
Irritability and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Irritability and Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

Joel Stoddard, Valerie Scelsa, and Soonjo Hwang

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0010
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
10 Irritability and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Joel Stoddard , Valerie Scelsa , and Soonjo Hwang Chronic irritability stands at the crossroads between disruptive behavior and emotional dysregulation. Defined as a decreased threshold to respond to provocation with anger and temper outbursts, it has long been considered an important feature of emotionally driven, disruptive behavior ( ; ). As such, psychological, neuroscientific, and sociological investigations of aggression have provided a basis for more recent, clinically focused investigations of pediatric chronic irritability ( ). The recognition of irritability as an affective feature of disruptive behavioral problems has been
Emotion Regulation and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Emotion Regulation and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Blossom Fernandes, Roseann Tan-Mansukhani, and Cecilia A. Essau

in Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2017
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2017
eISBN: 
9780191841996
DOI: 
10.1093/med:psych/9780198765844.003.0006
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology, Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198765844
Chapter 6 Emotion Regulation and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Behavioral Interventions for Irritability in Children and Adolescents

Behavioral Interventions for Irritability in Children and Adolescents  

Denis G. Sukhodolsky, Theresa R. Gladstone, Carolyn L. Marsh, and Kimberly R. Cimino

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0013
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
13 Behavioral Interventions for Irritability in Children and Adolescents Denis G. Sukhodolsky , Theresa R. Gladstone , Carolyn L. Marsh , and Kimberly R. Cimino Childhood irritability, characterized by frequent and developmentally inappropriate anger outbursts, is among the most frequent reasons for outpatient mental health referrals ( ). Behavioral manifestations of irritability can range from temper tantrums and screaming matches to physical aggression that may result in harm to self or others. The mood component of irritability has been framed as enduring and intense anger. Within the current approaches to irritability, the term has been used
Irritability in Pediatric PsychopathologyAutism

Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology: Autism  

Carla A. Mazefsky, Taylor N. Day, and Joshua Golt

in Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2019
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780190846817
DOI: 
10.1093/med-psych/9780190846800.003.0011
Specialty: 
Clinical Psychology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190846800
Disorder: 
Mood Disorders
11 Irritability in Pediatric Psychopathology Autism Carla A. Mazefsky , Taylor N. Day , and Joshua Golt Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined based on the presence of differences in social interaction and communicative behaviors together with the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). At present, ASD can be reliably diagnosed by 18–24 months of age based on behavioral markers, despite significant heterogeneity in the phenotypic expression ( ). The causes of ASD are largely unknown, although it is theorized that ASD results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors

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