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(p. 91) Transracial Adoption: Psychology, Law, and Policy 

(p. 91) Transracial Adoption: Psychology, Law, and Policy
(p. 91) Transracial Adoption: Psychology, Law, and Policy

Rachel H. Farr

and Katie M. Hrapczynski

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date: 02 July 2022

Historically, transracial adoption has been controversial in the United States. Even with legislation supporting the adoption of children who are not the same race or ethnicity as their parents, debate has continued about the well-being and racial socialization of transracially adopted children. Transracial adoptions comprise close to half of adoptions in the United States and most frequently involve White parents raising children of color. This chapter reviews what is known from the social sciences about family dynamics and child outcomes among transracial adoptive families in the United States. It also highlights pivotal court cases in custody battles related to transracial adoption, including recent controversy surrounding the Indian Child Welfare Act (1978). An intersectionality framework is used to represent diversity among transracial adoptive families, including those with sexual minority parents and formed through different pathways (i.e., international, private domestic, public child welfare). Finally, the chapter discusses evidence-based recommendations informing relevant laws and policies.

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