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(p. 340) Panic and Agoraphobia 

(p. 340) Panic and Agoraphobia
(p. 340) Panic and Agoraphobia

Marco Del Giudice

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date: 21 October 2020

The chapter discusses panic disorder and agoraphobia. Panic disorder is defined by recurring panic attacks, dramatic episodes in which a surge of autonomic activity is accompanied by rapidly escalating levels of fear and distress. Agoraphobia is the persistent fear of open or confined spaces, which often develops as a secondary response to panic attacks. After an overview of these disorders, their developmental features, and the main risk factors identified in the epidemiological literature, the chapter critically reviews existing evolutionary models and suggests new directions for research. The final section applies the criteria developed earlier in the book to classify the disorders within the FSD model. The author concludes that panic and agoraphobia can be classified as defense activation (D-type) conditions.

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