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(p. 235) Muscle Dysmorphia: Clinical Presentation and Treatment Strategies 

(p. 235) Muscle Dysmorphia: Clinical Presentation and Treatment Strategies
Chapter:
(p. 235) Muscle Dysmorphia: Clinical Presentation and Treatment Strategies
Author(s):

Scott Griffiths

, and Stuart B. Murray

DOI:
10.1093/med-psych/9780190630409.003.0014
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date: 28 February 2021

Muscle dysmorphia is a recently identified, complex, and largely unknown psychiatric disorder. Individuals with muscle dysmorphia typically report preoccupation with thoughts of attaining greater muscularity; conceal their bodies in public; have poor levels of insight into their preoccupation; report extreme functional impairment due to their preoccupation; have elevated rates of comorbid eating, mood, anxiety, and body dysmorphic disorders; use steroids; exercise compulsively; are strong adherents to traditional male gender roles; and report an elevated history of suicide attempts. Treatments for eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be effective for muscle dysmorphia, and case report evidence has shown family-based therapy to be effective for adolescent muscle dysmorphia. Additional treatment strategies include dismantling ego-syntonic beliefs and toxic beliefs surrounding masculinity. Comorbid steroid use and/or dependence complicates treatment and may require incorporating an endocrinologist into the treatment team.

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