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(p. 461) Cultivating Positive Outcome Expectation 

(p. 461) Cultivating Positive Outcome Expectation
(p. 461) Cultivating Positive Outcome Expectation

Michael J. Constantino

, Andreea Vîslă

, Alice E. Coyne

, and James F. Boswell

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date: 17 April 2021

Patients’ outcome expectation (OE) represents their belief about the mental health consequences of participating in psychotherapy. In this chapter, the authors first discuss the definitions of OE and similar constructs, common OE measures, clinical examples of OE, several landmark studies, and results of a previous meta-analysis of the OE-outcome association. The chapter then presents an updated meta-analysis of 81 independent samples with 12,722 patients. The overall weighted effect size was r = .18, or d = .36. Next, the authors present moderators and mediators of the OE–outcome link (the former in the context of the meta-analysis), evidence supporting causality in the association, patient factors related to OE, and limitations of the research base. Finally, the chapter reviews diversity considerations, training implications, and therapeutic practices with regard to OE and its robust association with therapy outcome.

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