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(p. 323) Congruence/Genuineness 

(p. 323) Congruence/Genuineness
(p. 323) Congruence/Genuineness

Gregory G. Kolden

, Chia-Chiang Wang

, Sara B. Austin

, Yunling Chang

, and Marjorie H. Klein

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date: 05 May 2021

Congruence or genuineness is a relationship element with an extensive and important history within psychotherapy. Congruence is an aspect of the therapy relationship with two facets, one intrapersonal and one interpersonal. This chapter defines and provides clinical examples of congruence. It presents an original meta-analysis of its relation with psychotherapy improvement. Analysis of 21 studies, representing 1,192 patients, resulted in a weighted aggregate effect size (r) of .23 or an estimated d of .46. In closing, the chapter addresses patient contributions, limitations of the extant research, diversity considerations, and therapeutic practices that might promote congruence and improve psychotherapy outcomes.

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