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(p. 212) Religion and Spirituality 

(p. 212) Religion and Spirituality
(p. 212) Religion and Spirituality

Joshua N. Hook

, Laura E. Captari

, William Hoyt

, Don E. Davis

, Stacey E. McElroy

, and Everett L. Worthington

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date: 08 August 2020

Some religious or spiritual (R/S) clients seek psychotherapy that integrates R/S values, while others may be reticent to disclose R/S-related aspects of struggles in a presumably secular setting. The authors meta-analyzed 97 outcome studies (N = 7,181) examining the efficacy of tailoring treatment to patients’ R/S beliefs and values. They compared the effectiveness of R/S-tailored psychotherapy with no-treatment controls, alternate secular treatments, and additive secular treatments. R/S-adapted psychotherapy resulted in greater improvement in clients’ psychological (g = .74) and spiritual (g = .74) functioning compared with no treatment and non-R/S psychotherapies (psychological g = .33; spiritual g = .43). In more rigorous additive studies, R/S-accommodated psychotherapies were equally effective to standard approaches in reducing psychological distress (g = .13) but resulted in greater spiritual well-being (g = .34). The chapter features several clinical examples and concludes with evidence-based therapeutic practices.

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