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(p. 469) From Dependence Towards Independence in the Development of the Individual 

(p. 469) From Dependence Towards Independence in the Development of the Individual
Chapter:
(p. 469) From Dependence Towards Independence in the Development of the Individual
Author(s):

Donald W. Winnicott

DOI:
10.1093/med:psych/9780190271381.003.0076
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date: 19 November 2019

In this talk to an Atlanta Psychiatric Clinic, Winnicott maintains that the early Freudian account of growth in terms of oral, anal, phallic and genital phases is insufficient. He charts growth in terms of the phases of dependence in early infancy until gradual independence in adulthood is more or less achieved. He sees this movement from dependence to independence as never completed. It is both a personal journey and a societal one. Winnicott elaborates three phases of the journey: ‘absolute dependence’, ‘relative dependence’ and ‘towards independence’. He cites many case examples of these phases.

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