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(p. 167) Using Music Therapy-Based Songwriting to Support Bereaved Students 

(p. 167) Using Music Therapy-Based Songwriting to Support Bereaved Students
Chapter:
(p. 167) Using Music Therapy-Based Songwriting to Support Bereaved Students
Author(s):

Thomas A. Dalton

and Robert E. Krout

DOI:
10.1093/med:psych/9780190606893.003.0012
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date: 01 December 2020

According to a survey conducted by the American Federation of Teachers (2012), 70% of classroom teachers reported that they were teaching a student who had experienced the death of a loved one in the past year, but only 7% of these teachers reported ever receiving bereavement training. When school children experience the death of a loved one, their behavior, learning, and development may be significantly affected (National Center for School Crisis and Bereavement, 2015). Although a death affects the bereaved student directly, negative effects can also be seen in others as that student interacts with peers, teachers, and staff (Dougy Center, 2015). However, by creating an environment for healing and support, the actions taken by teachers and staff can have a positive and lifelong impact on bereaved students and their classmates (Dougy Center, 2015).

Creative arts-based interventions have been recommended for supporting school-aged children during their grieving processes (Linnehan, 2013; McFerran & Teggelove, 2011; Rosner, Kruse, & Hagl, 2010; Webb, 2003; Wood & Near, 2010). One of these interventions is music therapy. In this context, music therapy uses creative arts-based music interventions to meet the needs of school-aged children and teens who are bereaved (Dalton & Krout, 2005, 2006; Hilliard, 2001, 2007, 2014, 2015; Krout, 2008, 2011; Register & Hilliard, 2008). Music therapy can facilitate creative grief expression as part of the natural grieving process for children and teens (Dalton & Krout, 2014). Music can function as a catalyst for healthy grief and facilitate a sense of wholeness. As described by Krout (2015):

When working with clients who do not display … complicated or disenfranchised grief, the music therapist may support the healthy and natural grieving (p. 168) process in a process which has been described by the acronym “VINE.” This describes music therapy’s use in facilitating the Validation, Identification, Normalization, and Expression of feelings and emotions. (p. 405)

The VINE principle (Teahan & Dalton, 2000) can be realized via music-based experiences in which the student has the opportunity to explore his or her feelings creatively within the context of a supportive group environment designed by the therapist. For example, music improvisation has been used successfully in music therapy practice and described by many authors (Aigen, 1991, 2005; McFerran, 2010, 2014; Wigram, 2004). The nonverbal expression of feelings through improvisation on instruments can be a powerful means of communicating feelings of grief (Dalton & Krout, 2006; McFerran, 2014). This is especially true for children and teens who may have difficulty finding words to describe what they are experiencing. In songwriting, music improvisation can be an important part of the song creation process. Combining an instrumental solo with singing or rapping lyrics adds another layer of personal expression and emotional depth to their song. Students can choose among various instruments to improvise musically, including drums and percussion, xylophones, the “Wing,” free-note metallophones, guitars, keyboards, and the use of Garage Band on the iPad, which offers key and scale constraining, making it easy for students to find notes within a song key and to improvise.

Using technology and having a variety of instruments available is recommended in music therapy sessions and is particularly helpful in the songwriting process. This could include the iPad with Garage Band software, keyboards, guitars, electronic or acoustic percussion, and a powered speaker and microphones. The iPad and Garage Band are especially useful in developing and recording songs using loops and software instruments found in Garage Band. Garage Band allows students to create a professional sound to their songs similar to what they are used to hearing from their favorite artists. The iPad and Garage Band also have a “smart instrument” feature that allows students to play effortlessly in specific keys and with dropdown scales where notes are constrained to a musical scale (Dalton, 2015).

The present chapter focuses on songwriting techniques organized in a natural progression of interventions over group sessions that gradually increase in scope and depth, highlighting a protocol created by the authors called the Grief Song-Writing Process (GSWP; Dalton & Krout, 2006). Use of the Grief Process Scale (GPS) (Dalton & Krout, 2005) as an evidence-based measure of five grief-process areas (understanding, feeling, remembering, integrating, and growing) is also described. This scale has been used in music therapy to document changes in core behaviors, thoughts and feelings regarding a child’s loved one, and how the child is coping since the death.

Although designed for students who appear to be grieving in a healthy manner, these supportive sessions may also be helpful for students who may be exhibiting signs of complicated or disenfranchised grief. We have found that one-on-one music therapy sessions may be also advised for students with complicated grief. (p. 169) For students who have extreme difficulty discussing or exploring aspects of how their loved one died or how they have been coping since the death, group sessions may be contraindicated. Students with complicated grief may have difficulty with open discussion of grief topics in the presence of peers. Another consideration for the clinician is mixing students with different types of losses, including anticipated (e.g., long-term cancer), sudden (e.g., accident, sudden medical event), and traumatic deaths such as murder or suicide. In our experience, it is often difficult to have separate groups in the school system based on the type of loss. Students are typically referred to therapy by the school counselors, and usually there are not enough students with similar losses to form separate groups. However, these mixed groups may still benefit the students as long as openly exploring the grief topics via music and songwriting does not trigger behaviors of serious concern for members of the group.

Measuring Outcomes: The GPS

The outcomes of music-based treatment approaches with bereaved students may be measured both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, evidence-based approaches offer opportunities to measure outcomes that can be compared before and after the intervention both between and within students. The GPS (Dalton & Krout, 2005) is an outcome-based assessment instrument that includes 30 self-statements generated from an analysis of 123 song lyrics of bereaved adolescents (Dalton & Krout, 2006). The GPS was designed to specifically measure five grief process areas: understanding, feeling, remembering, integrating, and growing.

Six statements for each of the five grief process areas represent core behaviors, thoughts, and feelings regarding adolescents’ grief and how they are coping with/since the death. In completing the GPS, each adolescent is asked to place a mark on a 100-mm continuous line that connects two polar opposites. A continuous line permits interval data to be recorded. These opposite descriptors are labeled as “easy” and “hard.” The place along the line at which the mark is made is designed to measure the level of difficulty reported by the participant in regard to the statement. A score of “0” indicates the participant feels that the statement is “easy,” while a score of “100” indicates that the process is “hard.” Several statements are reverse-worded. A decrease in the total GPS score thus indicates improvement in grief processing. The total possible scores range from 0 to 3,000 (0–100 on 30 statements). A mean can be calculated by dividing the total score on all items by the number of statements (30).

In the 2005 study, Dalton and Krout piloted the GPS with bereaved adolescents receiving group songwriting interventions. One focus of the study was to ascertain if a seven-week songwriting group treatment protocol (described later in this chapter) would assist the grieving process of adolescents who had experienced the death of a loved one. There were 20 participants (13 females and seven males) in the study, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. All had experienced the death of a loved one within the past three years prior to the beginning of the study. School (p. 170) guidance counselors and parents/guardians who contacted the authors’ bereavement counseling center for group counseling services referred participants for the groups. One of the songwriting groups took place at the bereavement counseling center within a hospice and palliative care organization. Four of the songwriting groups in the study were held in public middle and high schools. Although participant sample sizes were small, results suggested that the songwriting treatment helped the adolescents improve in their grief processing scores across all grief domains as compared to control participants. The GPS proved to be workable and did not appear to be cumbersome in its implementation. The results were promising, and pointed to positive growth in bereaved adolescents through creative songwriting in clinical music therapy (Dalton & Krout, 2005).

Concurrent validity for the GPS has been informally assessed. In the above study, Dalton and Krout observed positive correlations between the GPS and Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist, which were used as pre- and post-tests with bereaved adolescents in treatment groups receiving songwriting-based music therapy. In 2010, Rosner, Kruse, and Hagl completed a meta-analysis of treatment interventions for bereaved children and adolescents. The authors reported that the most successful interventions were two music therapy protocols, including the GSWP, the effects of which were measured as described above using the GPS. Rosner, Kruse, and Hagl reported that as measured by the GPS, the Dalton and Krout (2005) study yielded a comparably large effect size of 1.63.

In summary, the use of the GPS as an outcome measurement may be a choice for clinicians working in the schools, and may point to positive growth in bereaved adolescents through creative songwriting in clinical music therapy.

Songwriting Approaches and Techniques

Songwriting has been described as an effective intervention with bereaved children and teens by a number of authors (Dalton & Krout, 2005, 2006, 2014; Krout, 2005, 2011; Roberts & McFerran, 2013). A songwriting process can offer bereaved students an opportunity to gain insight into their own grief journey and experience a sense of healing through creative collaboration with peers and the clinician (Dalton & Krout, 2014). A variety of songwriting procedures and models are discussed in the literature for use with various populations, including lyric-based methods such as strategic and integrative, using therapist pre-composed song material with specific themes and having students add their own lyrics (Baker, 2015; Dalton & Krout, 2006, 2014), and “fill in the blank” using pre-composed songs where some lyrics are left blank for students to write their own words (Baker et al., 2005; Freed, 1987; Schmidt, 1983). Other techniques include song parody or lyric substitution, using pre-composed songs where students rewrite all or most of the lyrics (Abad, 2003; Baker et al., 2005; Derrington, 2011; Robb, 1996), and song collage using lyrics from other songs and arranging them to form a new song (Baker et al., 2005; Tamplin, 2006). Music-based methods include improvisational, where songs are created spontaneously through storytelling or with musical accompaniment by (p. 171) the music therapist (Aigen, 1991; Derrington, 2005; Robb, 1996; Roberts, 2006; Wigram, 2005), and rap or spoken word, where students write or spontaneously rap to a pre-composed beat or sample (Derrington, 2005; Viega, 2013). Mashup uses digital editing to combine recordings of two or more songs to form a new song (Baker, 2015; Sinnreich, 2010). For example, “Every Breath You Take” by the Police was integrated into “I’ll Be Missin’ You” by Puff Daddy and Faith Evans, creating a new song. Pastiche and Hodge Podge use recognizable and distinct musical styles, riffs, or motifs from other songs/artists in a new song (Baker, 2015; Roberts, 2006). These might be appropriate techniques with students who have a strong affinity for an artist and his or her musical style and want their song to emulate and imitate the artist vocally and instrumentally. Examples of this technique can be heard from “Weird Al” Yankovic and his style parodies of songs. Original songwriting from scratch allows students to have creative control over all aspects of the songwriting process (Baker & Krout, 2009; Dalton & Krout, 2006; Heath & Lings, 2012; Hilliard & Justice, 2011; Rolvsjord, 2001). Music therapists using songwriting with bereaved students should be well versed in the various songwriting procedures and approaches and let the method that is used be determined based on the group’s characteristics, preferences, abilities, and needs (Baker, 2015).

Song Parody or Lyric Substitution

Song parody or lyric substitution uses a pre-existing song as a starting point, and group members can rewrite some or most of the lyrics. It is a good place to start when songwriting with bereaved students. Sometimes a group will have a favorite popular song that they want to use in a song parody or lyric substitution process. The musical framework of the song would be kept and the group rewrites some or all of the lyrics. This can offer a more structured approach in songwriting and can often be done in a single session. This type of songwriting can also serve as an introduction or primer for original grief songwriting from scratch.

Strategic Songwriting

With strategic songwriting, some of the song is written in advance by the clinician and additional song material is written by/with the participants in the treatment groups. Dalton and Krout (2006)’s GSWP for bereaved adolescents is based on an integrated grief model of five grief processing areas (understanding, feeling, remembering, integrating, and growing). This songwriting procedure, outlined in Table 12.1, is part of a seven-week, research-based grief songwriting protocol that uses pre-composed choruses from the CD “My Life Is Changing 2: The Grief Song-Writing Process” (Dalton, 2016). It is recommended for non-musician clinicians because the musical framework has already been created. It has a successful track record with bereaved children and teens (Dalton & Krout, 2014) and can also serve as a primer for original grief songwriting. (p. 172)

Table 12.1. The Seven-Session Grief Song-Writing Process (GSWP)

Session 1

  1. 1. Administer the GPS assessment tool (Dalton & Krout, 2005).

  2. 2. Discuss the seven-week GSWP process, group guidelines, and confidentiality.

  3. 3. Develop group cohesion and rapport through icebreakers and sharing about their losses.

  4. 4. Explore the different instruments and music technology.

  5. 5. Listen to songs with grief themes and engage in lyric analysis and discussion.

  6. 6. Discuss grief myths and provide education on normal grieving.

Session 2

  1. 1. Students share more details about their loss and understanding of the cause of death.

  2. 2. Use of the GSWP song “This is How it Happened” with the following chorus:

    • “This is how it happened, the way my loved one died

    • It’s hard to understand it and all the reasons why

    • At times I can’t believe it and other times I cry

    • This is how it happened, the way my loved one died”

  3. 3. Students learn the chorus and develop their own individual verses.

  4. 4. Students sing and perform the song, with each person playing an instrumental solo after his or her verse.

  5. 5. Students verbally process the song together with music therapist–board certified (MT-BC).

Session 3

  1. 1. Students share different emotions they have about the loved one’s death.

  2. 2. Use of the GSWP song “So Many Feelings” with the following chorus:

    • “So many feelings and so much pain

    • Your death really hurt me, I’ll never be the same

    • I try to express it, I try to explain

    • So many feelings and so much pain”

  3. 3. Students learn the chorus and develop their own individual verses.

  4. 4. Students sing and perform the song, with each person playing an instrumental solo after his or her verse.

  5. 5. Students verbally process the song together with MT-BC.

Session 4

  1. 1. Students share their memories of their loved one.

  2. 2. Use of the GSWP song “I Remember” with the following chorus:

    • “I remember the good times, I remember the bad times too

    • And all the things we shared together, you’re in my heart now and forever

    • It’s so hard to let you go, I’m not afraid to let it show

    • I’ll always love you, I remember”

  3. 3. Students learn the chorus and develop their own individual verses.

  4. 4. Students sing and perform the song, with each person playing an instrumental solo after his or her verse.

  5. 5. Students verbally process the song together with MT-BC.

Session 5

  1. 1. Students share ways they are coping with their loss and continuing with their life activities while grieving.

  2. 2. Use of the GSWP song “Slowly Moving Away” with the following chorus:

    • “I’m slowly moving away from all this pain and sorrow

    • All this grief to bear, I’m thinking about tomorrow

    • I’m slowly moving away but I’m taking you with me

    • In my heart and soul, in my prayers and memories”

  3. 3. Students learn the chorus and develop their own individual verses.

  4. 4. Students sing and perform the song, with each person playing an instrumental solo after his or her verse.

  5. 5. Students verbally process the song together with MT-BC.

Session 6

  1. 1. Students share how their life has changed since the death and if they had experienced a sense of personal growth through their loss.

  2. 2. Use of the GSWP song “My Life Is Changing” with the following chorus:

    • “My life is changing, I’ll never be the same

    • My life is changing, I’ll carry you with me

    • My life is changing, in a thousand different ways

    • My life is changing, I’ve grown so much stronger

    • My life is changing, through the love and pain

    • My life is changing, your spirit will remain”

  3. 3. Students learn the chorus and develop their own individual verses.

  4. 4. Students sing and perform the song, with each person playing an instrumental solo after his or her verse.

  5. 5. Students verbally process the song together with MT-BC.

Session 7

This final session is a memorial or celebration of life that can include playing the five songs that were created in the GSWP, as well as other rituals of sharing food, photographs, poems, and so forth.

Note: Table compiled from Dalton, T. A., & Krout, R. E. (2006). The Grief Song-Writing Process with bereaved adolescents: An integrative grief model and music therapy protocol. Music Therapy Perspectives, 24(2), 94–107.

Original Grief Songwriting

A number of authors have described the value of original songwriting with bereaved children and teens (Baker, 2015; Baker & Krout, 2009; Dalton & Krout, 2005, 2006, 2014; McFerran, 2010; O’Callaghan, 2005; Roberts & McFerran, 2013). The value of this type of songwriting is that the song becomes an expression of students’ original song ideas. Students can take ownership of the songwriting process and can make all the creative choices involved in creating the song (Baker, 2015; Dalton & Krout, 2006). The clinician emphasizes that the student is in charge of the songwriting and the goal is for each participant in the group to feel that the song is a personal expression of his or her unique grief experience. The therapist creates a supportive environment for the students’ creative expression and then does only what is needed to keep the process moving.

Original grief songwriting requires more time—usually 10 to 15 sessions, depending on the group. The focus is to use the student’s own lyrical and musical ideas as much as possible in the songwriting process. Giving students a songwriting journal to write down song ideas is helpful and allows them to draw from their own experiences.

When facilitating a songwriting group, it is recommended to present the idea in a way that is nonthreatening and that will not overwhelm students, who may have no previous music or songwriting experience. Describe songwriting as fun and easy and a great way for creative expression. Use a “dive in” approach rather than trying to explain the entire process at once. For example, ask students if they want to write their own song or use a pre-composed song to rewrite. Having them make simple choices regarding the theme of the song or whether to write music or lyrics first allows them to quickly immerse into the process. Students can make other choices in terms of the preferred instruments to play, musical style for the song, tempo, and whether they want to sing, rap, or use spoken word.

Original grief songwriting offers students a chance to create a song from scratch but integrate other types of songwriting as needed. For example, in lyric creation, techniques such as “fill in the blank” and song collage can be used. Fragments with grief themes from “fill in the blank” phrases, song titles, magazine articles, and pre-composed songs can be cut up into lyric segments and placed in a basket called a “Lyric Idea Well.” Students can draw from the “well” when they are experiencing “writer’s block” and need some help with lyric ideas. When students draw a lyric segment, they are looking to find words that complement their own lyrical ideas based on their unique grief experience. A “Music Idea Well” can also be created with a variety of chord progressions from popular songs that can be cut into segments and drawn when students need help with musical ideas for their own song.

Group dynamics is an important aspect to consider in the songwriting process (Baker, 2013a, 2013b), as is mixing ages and genders (Baker, 2015). In the school setting, it may be difficult to separate groups by age and gender, so students will need to work together and find compromise among diverse musical preferences. Also, to avoid having one or two students monopolize the creative process, a democratic procedure of voting on songwriting elements can be used, allowing each (p. 173) (p. 174) student to have an equal voice in creative decisions. Giving time for students to work individually when generating ideas can allow for less assertive students to develop their thoughts into lyrics. This is helpful in chorus development, where individual ideas can be written on index cards and posted on a board so the group can vote on their favorite ones (Thompson, 2014). Breaking a larger group into dyads or triads can allow students to focus on areas of interest in the songwriting process: One group might work on lyrics and the other on music.

(p. 175) The first session should include administering the GPS assessment tool, discussing group guidelines, confidentiality, icebreakers, exploring instruments and technology, and playing, singing, and listening to pre-composed songs with grief themes. The group can engage in lyric analysis and discussion and begin to make notes in their songwriting journals.

Table 12.2 gives a step-by-step description of the songwriting process.

Table 12.2. Original Grief Songwriting

Make choices

  1. 1. Create music or lyrics first.

  2. 2. Choose the musical style (styles can be combined—e.g., country/rock, pop/rap, pop/reggae).

Write the chorus

  1. 1. Have students work independently and write down 1–3 chorus ideas each on an index card.

  2. 2. Post index cards on board and vote on favorite ideas.

  3. 3. The music therapist works collaboratively with group to combine, integrate, and blend ideas into chorus lyric.

  4. 4. Students can draw from the “Lyric Idea Well” as needed.

Create the music

  1. 1. Select beat and tempo for song (can choose Garage Band loops or play on percussion). Group votes on favorite.

  2. 2. Each student can play a chord progression on Garage Band or guitar/keyboard and group votes on favorite.

  3. 3. The music therapist assists in combining/integrating chord ideas.

  4. 4. Students can spontaneously sing melody notes or play on keyboard.

  5. 5. Students can draw from “Music Idea Well” as needed.

  6. 6. Students can play Garage Band or instruments with music therapist.

Write the verses

  1. 1. Have students work independently to develop individual verse lyrics (use of probing questions can help students in their lyrics, with rhyming optional).

  2. 2. Students can choose to sing, rap or speak on their verse lyrics.

  3. 3. MT-BC works with students to assist as needed.

  4. 4. Students can draw from “Lyric Idea Well” as needed.

Verbal processing

  1. 1. In creating the chorus and verse lyrics with the students, the music therapist facilitates verbal processing and provides validation, identification, normalization, and expression of feelings and emotions using “the VINE principle” (Teahan & Dalton, 2000).

  2. 2. MT-BC highlights how students have common grief experiences.

Improvisational solos

  1. 1. Students choose a favorite instrument or Garage Band to play an improvised solo after their verse.

  2. 2. If using Garage Band, “smart instruments” can be used to scale notes/keys.

  3. 3. The emotion of the student’s verse can be incorporated into his or her improvisational solo.

Create song structure

  1. 1. Use of a chorus/verse/solo/chorus format is recommended to allow students their own verse followed by an instrumental solo.

  2. 2. Everyone can sing on the chorus and students have the option to sing, rap, or use spoken word on their individual verses.

  3. 3. If the song is too long, each student can have two lines in a verse and solos can be combined.

  4. 4. A bridge can be added to this song structure as needed.

Practice and rehearse

  1. 1. Fine-tune the music and lyrics so that each person is comfortable with the song.

  2. 2. Play the song together and focus on developing a relaxed flow, with each student enjoying the process of performing the song.

  3. 3. Spend extra time on instrumental solos as needed.

Record the song

  1. 1. Set up microphones and Garage Band on the iPad or laptop to record.

  2. 2. Play through song and set input levels to appropriate threshold.

  3. 3. Record the song and do multiple overdubs as needed.

  4. 4. The music therapist can add vocal harmonies and extra musical parts if desired by the group.

  5. 5. Mix the song and share mp3 with group via email or text.

Create a slide show for use in a celebration of life final group session

  1. 1. If desired, students can create a slide show with photos of group members and of their loved ones, with the song as the soundtrack.

  2. 2. Scan pictures into “Photos” on iPad or laptop and create a slide show with the original song as the music soundtrack.

  3. 3. Students can choose to show the slide show at a memorial or celebration of life service.

Considerations/Options for the Non-Music Therapist

For non-musician clinicians who wish to use song-based grief processing experiences with their students, songs written by music therapists may be an option. Using songs that are not already known by these students may help avoid established relationships with and reaction to the songs (Baker, 2015; Krout, 2005). Pre-composed songs for bereaved students by music therapists can be used for listening, lyric analysis and discussion, playing and singing, and as a primer for songwriting. In addition to using the GSWP and accompanying CD, “My Life Is Changing 2: The Grief Song-Writing Process” (Dalton, 2016), another resource available is “Songs from Sorrow—Songs from Joy” (Krout, 1999). This collection of 25 songs was written specifically to enable and frame group music therapy experiences for grieving and bereaved children and teens. A lyric sheet is included, as well as a CD recording of all the songs and suggestions on how to use them. Grief topics addressed by the songs include anger over the death of a loved one, changes affecting a child’s life following the death of a loved one, bereaved child empowerment, facilitating closure and framing rituals, expression of feelings and emotions including sadness and anger, emotional and physical health, returning to school after the death of a loved one, and others. Many of the songs include opportunities for playing instruments, movement, and related creative arts experiences.

Another music therapist song collection available is “Tree of Life” (Dalton, 2012), which is designed for those who have experienced the effects of losing a loved one, including a parent, child, sibling, spouse, or friend, and describes how one can find healthy ways to cope with the loss. The songs offer validation for the experience of grieving both at the beginning of the loss and over time. There are spiritual overtones to some of the songs that carry messages of hope. Other songs guide the listener toward developing a sense of meaning and understanding through the loss.

One important thing for the non-music therapist clinician to remember is that songs and other music-based interventions may elicit powerful and often unexpected reactions from students. Music has the ability to trigger a strong emotional response, even with bereaved children and teens who may not realize that they have these feelings. The clinician must be ready to help the students process what they feel and express themselves in a safe, normalizing, and supportive environment. As such, it may be helpful for the non-music therapist to work or consult with a school-based clinician experienced in dealing with emotional expressions and responses of bereaved students. These allied clinicians (p. 176) (p. 177) may include social workers, psychologists and psychiatrists, and bereavement counselors.

Consulting with a music therapist may also be helpful in learning more about how music experiences can trigger emotional responses and how to safely respond to and address these behaviors in the group setting. Many school systems have music therapists on staff who work with students with special needs, and these clinicians may be excellent resources. The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) is a good source for finding music therapists who work in varied settings including bereavement, as well as different geographic areas. The AMTA website (www.musictherapy.org) can be searched under the “Find a music therapist” tab. Books such as Music Therapy: A Fieldwork Primer by Borczon (2004) may also be (p. 178) helpful in learning how music-based experiences can elicit strong responses from clients and how to address these within the session.

In summary, music and songwriting-based sessions can be tremendously beneficial for bereaved students in the school setting. We hope that clinicians and readers have the opportunity to share music-based experiences with these students.

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