Show Summary Details
Page of

(p. 273) Index 

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY ONLINE (www.oxfordclinicalpsych.com). © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Clinical Psychology Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

Subscriber: null; date: 09 December 2021

Ability defined, 1415
Abstraction abilities, 44, 161, 174, 189, 206
Abstraction skills assessment, 131
Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), 128
ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), 30, 46, 69, 71, 148, 172, 190191
Adjudicative competence. See Competence to stand trial (CST)
Adjusted bar standard, 2123, 22t
Adolescent norms standard, 24, 73t
Adult CST, 4
Adult norms standard, 21, 73t
Age, CST and, 6066
Age-IQ interactions, 6768
Age-peer norms standard, 24
Alabama CST standards, 6
Alcohol abuse, 69
Anxiety disorders
effects of, 4546, 50, 172173, 190191
evaluation tools, 148, 162
as IST predicate, 176
research data, 59, 6970
risk-taking and, 54
Appreciation capacity
age and, 6263
age-IQ interactions, 6768
described, 4142
evaluation of, 5859, 136137 (See also specific tools)
four capacities model, 38, 39t, 40f
intellectual functioning and, 6667
learning/academic functioning, 6869
mental illness and, 70, 136
remediation of, 189, 192193
research data, 5859
understanding vs., 168
Assessment tools, 143145. See also specific tools
Assisting capacity
age and, 6366
age-IQ interactions, 68
described, 4243
evaluation of, 5859, 138139 (See also specific tools)
four capacities model, 38, 39t, 40f
intellectual functioning and, 67
learning/academic functioning, 69
legal standards, 1415, 2223
mental illness and, 7071
models of, 35t, 3638, 37t
remediation of, 192193
research data, 5859
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 30, 46, 69, 71, 148, 172, 190191
Attorney-client privilege, 63, 92, 122, 183, 211
Attorney-client relationships, assessment of, 132, 139, 180181. See also Defense attorneys
Autonomy (conformity/compliance), 5253, 6465, 212


Basic understanding and communication standard, 23
Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), 162
Behavior disorders, 4546, 7071, 90, 172
Behaviors/demeanor of defendant as IST basis, 15
Bipolar disorder, 17, 172
Bonnie’s model, 35t, 3638, 149
Buchanan v. Kentucky, 122


Canadian CST standards, 18
Cannabis abuse, 69
Caregivers. See also Interested adults
CST role of, 2930, 7475
influence of, 53, 117118, 182, 212
interviewing, 115118, 120
notification requirements, 101102
research data, 7475
Case-specific questioning, 140142
CAST*MR (Competency Assessment Screening Test for persons with Mental Retardation), 58, 146t, 154156
Causal questions, 103, 166f 170178, 211
Civil commitment, 1113
Clinical then forensic model, 203204
Cognitive acceleration programs, 193
Cognitive complexity model, 33, 34t
Cognitive slowing, 173
(p. 274) Communication disorders, 30, 162
Competence determination request procedures, 9
Competence restoration. See Remediation
Competence to assist counsel. See Assisting capacity
Competence to proceed to adjudication. See Competence to stand trial (CST)
Competence to stand trial (CST), 34
criminal vs. juvenile court, 2125, 22t
functional capacities in, 3334 (See also specific capacities)
Competency Assessment Screening Test for persons with Mental Retardation (CAST*MR), 58, 146t, 154156
Competency domains model (semantic analysis model), 33, 34t
Compliance, 5253, 6465, 212
Conclusory questions, 103, 166f, 183186
Conditional statements, 183
Confidentiality, 92, 122
Conformity, 5253, 6465, 212
Contextual questions, 103, 166f, 178183
Cooperation, lack of, 176
Cooper v. Oklahoma, 11
Court hearings, observing, 132133
Criminal court CST
decisional capacity in, 43
defined, 4
examiner qualifications, 89
functional capacities in, 39, 179
history, 56
juvenile court vs., 2126, 22t, 179
rationale, 45
remediation, 12
Cross examination, 218, 221
Culture issues, 175


Data collection
approach to, 107108, 111
caregivers (See Caregivers)
current mental-state, 128131
evaluation preparation, 104105
functional CST interview (See Functional CST interview)
historical information, 105106, 116117, 126127
interviews (See Interviews)
mental health/medical providers, 114
observation, direct, 131133
probation officers, 115
record keeping, 108109
reliability in, 104
social service representatives, 115
teachers/school officials, 114115
third-party information (See Third-party information)
Data then opinions model, 203, 204
Decision making capacity
age and, 6366
age-IQ interactions, 68
caregiver’s influence on, 118
described, 4344
evaluation of, 137138, 168169
four capacities model, 38, 39t, 40f
intellectual functioning and, 67
learning/academic functioning, 69
legal standards, 2223
mental illness and, 7071
models of, 35t, 3638, 37t
negative influences on, 173
psychosocial development in, 5256
remediation of, 192193
Defendant, meeting pre-trial, 219
Defense attorneys
attorney-client privilege, 63, 92, 122, 183, 211
attorney-client relationships, assessment of, 132, 139, 180181
contact requirements, 97101, 100t
expectations, assessment of, 9899
meeting, pre-trial, 218
perceptions, obtaining, 99101
presence of, 99, 100t
representation, confirmation of, 9798
Depression, 50, 162, 173, 175, 190191
Development, normal, 87
Developmental immaturity, 4749
biological, 5051, 64
cognitive, 51
evaluation of, 8689, 106, 161162, 168, 174
as IST predicate, 2729
mental disorders vs., 4647
psychosocial, 5256
remediation, 3132, 189
research data, 74
Developmental psychology, 48, 87
Developmental psychopathology, 87, 88
(p. 275) Diagnosis of mental disorders. See also Mental disease or defect
causal questions, 171173
child clinical/development expertise, 8689
developmental/clinical status, 106
interviews in, 127128
as IST basis, 15, 17
psychosis, 87, 131
research data, 5960, 71
tools, 162
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV-Youth (DISC-IV-Y), 128
Direct examination, 218, 220
Discrete abilities model, 3536, 35t, 149
Distractibility, 172173
Documentation. See also Report writing
evaluation, 97, 199t, 202203
functional CST interview, 210211
Domain targeting, 105107, 117
Domain targeting, 105107, 117
Drope v. Missouri, 15, 17
Duhon, United States v., 192, 193
Dusky v. United States, 1415, 17
applications of, 2126, 22t, 103
developmental immaturity, 27 (See also Developmental immaturity)
requirements, 139140, 180
Dysthymic disorder, 172


Estelle v. Smith, 98, 122
Evaluation of Competence to Stand Trial-Revised (ECST-R), 146t, 156158
Evaluation of competency
assessments, developmentally appropriate, 89
assessment tools, 143145 (See also specific tools)
authorizations, 9192
capacities (See specific capacities)
caregivers (See Caregivers)
child clinical/development expertise, 8689
clarifications
clinical issues, 93
non-CST goals, 94
procedures/methods/tools, 9597
referral, 91
referral question, 9293
court-appointed, 92, 94, 122
defense attorneys (See Defense attorneys)
developmental/clinical status, 8689, 106, 161162
developmental immaturity, 8689, 106, 161162, 168, 174 (See also Developmental immaturity)
documentation, 97, 199t, 202203
domain targeting, 105107, 117
examiner qualifications, 8591
ex parte, 9294, 96, 122
flexible assessment battery, 107
forensic mental health expertise, 86
historical information, 105106, 116117, 126127, 205206
information, obtaining, 104105
intellectual functioning, 6669, 160161
interested adults (See Interested adults)
justice system/delinquency expertise, 8990
learning ability, 161
legal procedure, 10
locations, 96
mental disorders, 87, 131, 162, 171173
mental retardation, 58, 146t,151, 154156, 173174
models in, 102104
neuropsychological testing, 163
objectivity, 9091, 95, 208
observation, direct, 131133
psychological testing, 58, 95, 158160, 207
record keeping, 108109
referrals (See Referrals)
research data, 5759
response-style testing, 163164, 175176, 185
timelines, 96
Examiner qualifications, 8591
Ex parte evaluations, 9294, 96, 122


Fetal alcohol syndrome, 88, 114
Fitness Interview Test-Revised (FIT-R), 60, 73, 7578, 146t, 151153, 158
Flexible assessment battery, 107
Flexible bar standard, 22t, 2425, 73
Florida remediation programs, 31, 194
Forensic assessment instruments (FAIs), 58, 7578, 77t, 143, 185. See also specific tools
Four capacities model, 3844, 39t, 40f
Function, observations of, 105107, 117
(p. 276) Functional capacity models, 3334, 35t, 37t
Bonnie’s, 35t, 3638, 149
cognitive complexity, 33, 34t
competency domains (semantic analysis), 33, 34t
discrete abilities, 3536, 35t, 149
four capacities, 3844, 39t, 40f
Functional CST interview, 133134. See also specific capacities
assessment tools, 143145 (See also specific tools)
capacities, assessment of, 135139 (See also specific capacities)
case-specific/standardized, 140142
documentation, 210211
preliminary questioning, 134135
questions, 103, 166f, 167170
teaching, 139140, 169
Fund of information assessment, 130


Gault, In re, 7
Godinez v. Moran, 16, 22, 103
Guidance, offering, 187


Historical information, 105106, 116117, 126127, 205206
Holmes, United States v., 15


Immaturity. See Developmental immaturity
Impulsivity, 172
Inattention, 172173
Incompetent to stand trial (IST)
conviction as civil rights violation, 5
correlates of, 60 (See also specific factors)
disposition/remediation, 1113
predicates for, 17, 2629, 5455, 178 (See also specific conditions)
remediation (See Remediation)
Individualized Education Plans (IEPs), 114
Infancy defense, 202
Informed consent, 122
Intellectual functioning assessment, 6669, 160161
Interested adults. See also Caregivers
CST role of, 2930, 7475
research data, 7475
Interpersonal perspective, 55. See also Perspective taking
Interpretation of data, 165166, 166f
Interviews
abstraction skills, 131
caregivers, 115118, 120
clinical/developmental, 126129
comprehension assessment, 123125, 124t
conditions, 119120
current mental-state, 128131
developmentally appropriate, 120, 134
functional CST (See Functional CST interview)
fund of information, 130
historical information, 105106, 116117, 126127
legal rights notification, 121126, 124t
memory, 130
mood assessment, 129130
multimodal, 133134
orientation assessment, 130
participation, 125126
preparations, 118126, 124t
rapport building, 121
social/practical judgment, 131
symptom history/diagnostics, 127128


Jackson v. Indiana, 12, 194
Judicial transfers, 56
Juvenile Adjudicative Competence Interview (JACI), 134, 135, 137, 138, 143, 145148, 146t, 158
Juvenile Competency Assessment Procedure, 133
Juvenile court CST
competency as requirement, 1921
criminal court vs., 2126, 22t, 179
decisional capacity in, 43
defined, 4
examiner qualifications, 89
functional capacities in, 39, 179
history, 69
testimony in, 215217
ultimate issue opinion, 185
Juvenile CST/criminal court, 4


Kaufman Short Neuropsychological Assessment Procedure (K-SNAP), 129
Kent v. United States, 7
Key trial questions, 221225


Learning ability assessment, 6869, 161
Learning disorders, 4546
(p. 277) Legal–empirical–forensic model, 86
Legal issues, 34
applications, 1819
attorney-client privilege, 63, 92, 122, 183, 211
authorizations, 9192
confidentiality, 92, 122
history, 49
jurisdictional standards, 1618
procedures, 913
competence determination requests, 9
disposition/remediation, 1113
evaluation of competency (See Evaluation of competency)
judicial determination, 1011
rehearings, 13
standards, 1318 (See also specific case law)
adjusted bar, 2123, 22t
Canadian, 18
flexible bar, 22t, 2425, 73
lower bar, 22t, 2324
Lower bar standard, 22t, 2324


MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA), 58, 60, 7576, 77t, 146t, 148151, 158
Malingering, 163, 176177, 185
Medical records, obtaining, 94, 96, 112
Medications as remediation, 190191
Medina v. California, 9, 11
Memory assessment, 130
Mental disease or defect
developmental immaturity vs., 4647
evaluation of, 162, 171173
functional capacities and, 43, 7071, 136
as IST predicate, 17, 2627, 4546
remediation, 3031
research data, 6671
Mental health/medical providers, 114
Mental retardation
evaluation of, 58, 146t, 151, 154156, 173174
functional capacities and, 43
as IST basis, 17, 2627
remediation of, 191193
research data, 6668
Models
clinical then forensic, 203204
competency domains (semantic analysis), 33, 34t
data then opinions, 203, 204
functional capacity (See Functional capacity models)
Morse, 103
opinion and data, 204
Mood assessment, 129130
Mood disorders, 70, 148, 172173
Morse model, 103


Neuropsychological testing, 163
Notification requirements
caregivers, 101102
defense counsel, 97101, 100t
legal rights, 121126, 124t
recommendations, 122123


Objectivity, 9091, 95, 208
Observations
court hearings, 132133
direct, in data collection, 131133
of function, 105107, 117
Opinion and data model, 204
Opposing reports, review of, 218219
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 176
Orientation assessment, 130


Parens patriae, 67, 20
Pate v. Robinson, 9
Peer pressure, 53
Perspective taking, 5556, 65
Poor interpersonal relations, 173
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 30, 162, 172, 177178
Predicate requirements, 17, 2629, 5455, 178. See also specific conditions
Present ability defined, 14
Probation officers, 115
Psychological testing, 58, 95, 158160, 207
Psychosis
evaluation of, 87, 131
functional capacities and, 41
as IST basis, 17, 2627, 46
remediation of, 188
research data, 6971, 188
Puberty, 50


Qualifications of examiners, 8591
Qualifying the expert/trial, 220
Questions
causal, 103, 166f, 170178, 211
conclusory, 103, 166f, 183186
(p. 278) contextual, 103, 166f, 178183
functional, 103, 166f, 167170
key trial, 221225
preparation, 217218
remediation, 103, 166f, 187194


Race/minority status, 7172
Rapport building, 121, 181
Reasonable ability defined, 14
Rebelliousness, 50
Rees v. Peyton, 15
Referrals
acceptance of, 9495
clarification of, 9193
patterns, 5960, 79
Regina. v. Taylor, 18
Remediation
of appreciation capacity, 189, 192193
of assisting capacity, 192193
of decision making capacity, 192193
of developmental immaturity, 189
juvenile vs. criminal defendants, 3032
legal procedure, 1113
medications, 190191
of mental retardation, 191193
potential, reporting on, 213214
of psychosis, 188
questions, 103, 166f, 187194
recommendations, 190193
referral patterns, 5960, 79
research data, 5859, 7980
service providers, 7980, 193194
success, 80, 170, 189190
teaching, 139140, 169, 191193
timeline, 12, 194
trial process, during, 187
of understanding capacity, 189, 192
Report writing, 195
data sections, 205209
CST abilities, 207208
history, 205206
mental/developmental status, 206207
psychological testing, 207
effectiveness, 197198
evaluation notes, 97
findings, organization of, 169170
objectivity in, 197
opinions section, 209214
clinical/developmental causes, 210212
CST ultimate issue, 212213
deficits, potential consequences of, 212
functional strengths/weaknesses, 210
remediation potential, 213214
organization, 198214, 199t201t
background, 200t
CST functioning, 200t201t
data sections, 205209
evaluation scope/procedures, 199t, 202203
information sources, 199t, 202203
introductory sections, 198201, 199t
notification/preparation, 199t, 201202
opinions, 201t
primary content models, 203204
purpose, 195196
Representation, confirmation of, 9798
Research data
age, CST and, 6066
age-IQ interactions, 6768
anxiety disorders, 59, 6970
capacity, levels of, 21, 24, 7374, 73t
charges, 72
court of adjudication, 72
developmental immaturity, 74
evaluations, 5759
examiner opinions/court determinations, 7879
FAIs, 58, 7578, 77t
gender, 72
intellectual functioning, 6668
interested adults, 7475
IST correlates (See specific factors)
juvenile CST standard, 7275
learning/academic functioning, 6869
legal system experience, 71
mental illness, 6971
multivariate analysis, 71
race/minority status, 7172
referral patterns, 5960, 79
remediation service providers, 7980
remediation success, 80
socioeconomic status, 72
Response-style testing, 163164, 175176, 185
Risk perceptions/attitudes, 5354, 65
Risk- Sophistication-Treatment Inventory (RSTI), 161


Schizophrenia, 17, 27
Scott-Reppucci-Woolard model, 52
Self-incriminating statements, 98, 122, 138139
(p. 279) Sell v. United States, 191
Semantic analysis model (competency domains model), 33, 34t
Semistructured Clinical Interview for Children and Adolescents (SCICA), 128
Sensory deficits, 175
Social/practical judgment assessment, 131
Social service representatives, 115
State v. Burnett, 175
Steinberg-Cauffman model, 52
Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), 163
Substance abuse, 6971, 113, 118
Sufficient ability defined, 14


Tate v. Florida, 2930
Teachers/school officials, 114115
Teaching, 139140, 169, 191193
Temperance, 54
Temporal perspective, 55, 65
Testimony, 214226
attorney meeting, pre-trial, 218
in competence determination, 11
defendant, meeting pre-trial, 219
in juvenile court, 215217
as learning opportunity, 215
opposing reports, review of, 218219
precluding, 196
preparation, 217219
psychological damage/youth, 216217
skills/strategies, 216
trial procedures, 219225
cross examination, 218, 221
direct examination, 218, 220
key questions, 221225
qualifying the expert, 220
Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), 163
Third-party information, 111
medical records, obtaining, 94, 96, 112
obtaining, 104105
sources of, 113115
timeline for collecting, 108
value of, 112113
Timelines, 12, 96, 108, 194
Transitive thinking, 44, 161, 174, 189, 206
Trial procedures, 219225
cross examination, 218, 221
direct examination, 218, 220
key questions, 221225
qualifying the expert, 220


Ultimate issue opinion, 103, 166f 183186, 212213
Understanding capacity
age and, 6162
appreciation vs., 168
described, 40
evaluation of, 5859, 135136
four capacities model, 38, 39t, 40f
intellectual functioning and, 6667
learning/academic functioning, 6869
legal standards, 1415, 2223
legal system experience, 71
mental illness and, 70
models of, 37t
remediation of, 189, 192
research data, 5859
Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), 160161


Vignette methodology, 148, 149
Villegas, United States v., 15
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland II), 162
Virginia CST standards, 6, 134


Washington v. Swenson-Tucker, 28
Wechsler intelligence tests, 129, 160
Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4), 161
Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML-2), 161
Wilson v. United States, 15, 103
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, III (WJ-III COG), 160
Word Memory Test (WMT), 163
Written reports. See Report writing (p. 280)