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(p. 190) Commentary 

(p. 190) Commentary
(p. 190) Commentary

Barbara O. Rothbaum

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date: 22 January 2021

Richard Bryant and Angela Nickerson describe the case of Hakim, a 36-year-old Iraqi Shi’ite Muslim who fled Iraq in 2000 and was granted refugee status in Australia in 2001. They describe multiple presenting problems including PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse (although this was never formally diagnosed in the case presentation), anger, physical pain caused by injuries sustained during the torture, social isolation, and familial stressors. This is a heart-wrenching case, punctuated by multiple injustices and misfortunes. Hakim’s PTSD is likely exacerbated by his psychosocial circumstances, including his separation from his wife and four children, probable fears about their safety, restrictions of visa status and resulting dependence on his cousin, and stressful living conditions with limited resources. These circumstances would be highly stressful for any mammal....

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